Next Article in Journal
Analytical Profiling of Proanthocyanidins from Acacia mearnsii Bark and In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential
Previous Article in Journal
A Turn-On Detection of DNA Sequences by Means of Fluorescence of DNA-Templated Silver Nanoclusters via Unique Interactions of a Hydrated Ionic Liquid
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Design of Experiment Approach for Ionic Liquid-Based Extraction of Toxic Components-Minimized Essential Oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Fruits
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112890

Extraction and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Rice: A Review

1
Department of Animal Sciences, Division of Quality of Animal Products, University of Göttingen, Albrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, c/Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), PTS Granada, Avda. Del Conocimiento 37, Edificio BioRegion, 18016 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1153 KB, uploaded 6 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Rice represents the main source of calorie intake in many world countries and about 60% of the world population include rice in their staple diet. Whole grain rice, also called brown rice, represent the unpolished version of the more common white rice including bran, germ, and endosperm. Many health-promoting properties have been associated to the consumption of whole grain rice and, for this reason, great attention has been paid by the scientific community towards the identification and the quantification of bioactive compounds in this food item. In this contribution, the last five years progresses in the quali-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds in rice have been highlighted. Special attention has been devoted to the most recent strategies for the extraction of the target compounds from rice along with the analytical approaches adopted for the separation, identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. More specifically, the main features of the “traditional” extraction methods (i.e., maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction) have been described, as well as the more innovative protocols involving advanced extraction techniques, such as MAE (microwave-assisted extraction). The predominant role of HPLC in the definition of the phenolic profile has been examined also presenting the most recent results obtained by using mass spectrometry-based detection systems. In addition, the most common procedures aimed to the quantification of the total amount of the cited classes of phenolic compounds have been described together with the spectrophotometric protocols aimed to the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of rice phenolic extracts (i.e., FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and ORAC). View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; phenolic compounds; phenolic acids; flavonoids; anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; antioxidant activity; extraction; HPLC methods rice; phenolic compounds; phenolic acids; flavonoids; anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; antioxidant activity; extraction; HPLC methods
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ciulu, M.; Cádiz-Gurrea, M.L.; Segura-Carretero, A. Extraction and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Rice: A Review. Molecules 2018, 23, 2890.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top