Next Article in Journal
Outlook on the Application of Metal-Liganded Bioactives for Stimuli-Responsive Release
Next Article in Special Issue
Controlled Synthesis of Monodisperse Hexagonal NaYF4:Yb/Er Nanocrystals with Ultrasmall Size and Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence
Previous Article in Journal
Terpenoids and Phenylpropanoids in Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, L. nelumbifolia, and L. limprichtii
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lanthanide Photoluminescence in Heterometallic Polycyanidometallate-Based Coordination Networks
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2064;

Upconversion Luminescence Sensitized pH-Nanoprobes

Department of Chemistry, School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lanthanide Luminescence: Fundamental Research and Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4761 KB, uploaded 25 November 2017]   |  


Photon upconversion materials, featuring excellent photophysical properties, are promising for bio-medical research due to their low autofluorescence, non-cytotoxicity, low photobleaching and high photostability. Upconversion based pH-nanoprobes are attracting considerable interest due to their superiority over pH-sensitive molecular indicators and metal nanoparticles. Herein, we review the advances in upconversion based pH-nanoprobes, the first time in the seven years since their discovery in 2009. With a brief discussion on the upconversion materials and upconversion processes, the progress in this field has been overviewed, along with the toxicity and biodistribution of upconversion materials for intracellular application. We strongly believe that this survey will encourage the further pursuit of intense research for designing molecular pH-sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical sensors; molecular probes; pH-sensors; upconversion; photoluminescence optical sensors; molecular probes; pH-sensors; upconversion; photoluminescence

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mahata, M.K.; Bae, H.; Lee, K.T. Upconversion Luminescence Sensitized pH-Nanoprobes. Molecules 2017, 22, 2064.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top