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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 8 (August 2014), Pages 10670-12897

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Open AccessArticle Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Potential Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae) in Southwest China Based on SRAP Markers
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12881-12897; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812881
Received: 28 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The genus Miscanthus has great potential as a biofuel feedstock because of its high biomass, good burning quality, environmental tolerance, and good adaptability to marginal land. In this study, the genetic diversity and the relationship of 24 different natural Miscanthus sinensis populations collected
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The genus Miscanthus has great potential as a biofuel feedstock because of its high biomass, good burning quality, environmental tolerance, and good adaptability to marginal land. In this study, the genetic diversity and the relationship of 24 different natural Miscanthus sinensis populations collected from Southwestern China were analyzed by using 33 pairs of Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) primers. A total of 688 bands were detected with 646 polymorphic bands, an average of 19.58 polymorphic bands per primer pair. The average percentage of polymorphic loci (P), gene diversity (H), and Shannon’s diversity index (I) among the 24 populations are 70.59%, 0.2589, and 0.3836, respectively. The mean value of total gene diversity (HT) was 0.3373 ± 0.0221, while the allelic diversity within populations (HS) was 0.2589 ± 0.0136 and the allelic diversity among populations (DST) was 0.0784. The mean genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.2326) estimated from the detected 688 loci indicated that there was 76.74% genetic differentiation within the populations, which is consistent with the results from Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) analysis. Based upon population structure and phylogenetic analysis, five groups were formed and a special population with mixed ancestry was inferred indicating that human-mediated dispersal may have had a significant effect on population structure of M. sinensis. Evaluating the genetic structure and genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels of the wild M. sinensis in Southwest China is critical to further utilize the wild M. sinensis germplasm in the breeding program. The results in this study will facilitate the biofuel feedstock breeding program and germplasm conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Conjugates of 1'-Aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic Acid and Proline: Synthesis, Conformational Analysis and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12852-12880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812852
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our previous studies showed that alteration of dipeptides Y-Fca-Ala-OMe (III) into Y-Ala-Fca-OMe (IV) (Y = Ac, Boc; Fca = 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid) significantly influenced their conformational space. The novel bioconjugates Y-Fca-Pro-OMe (1, Y = Ac; 2, Y
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Our previous studies showed that alteration of dipeptides Y-Fca-Ala-OMe (III) into Y-Ala-Fca-OMe (IV) (Y = Ac, Boc; Fca = 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid) significantly influenced their conformational space. The novel bioconjugates Y-Fca-Pro-OMe (1, Y = Ac; 2, Y = Boc) and Y-Pro-Fca-OMe (3, Y = Boc; 4, Y = Ac) have been prepared in order to investigate the influence of proline, a well-known turn-inducer, on the conformational properties of small organometallic peptides with an exchanged constituent amino acid sequences. For this purpose, peptides 14 were subjected to detailed spectroscopic analysis (IR, NMR, CD spectroscopy) in solution. The conformation of peptide 3 in the solid state was determined. Furthermore, the ability of the prepared conjugates to inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-responsive MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding)
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Open AccessArticle Unusual Product Distribution from Friedländer Reaction of Di- and Triacetylbenzenes with 3-Aminonaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde and Properties of New Benzo[g]quinoline-Derived Aza-aromatics
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12842-12851; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812842
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Friedländer reactions of acetylbenzenes and 2-acetylpyridine with 3-aminonaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde afforded the corresponding 2-phenylbenzo[g]quinoline and 2-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[g]quinoline, respectively. The same reactions of 3-aminonaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde with 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-di- and 1,3,5-triacetylbenzenes, however, afforded a series of corresponding (benzo[g]quinolin-2-yl)benzenes as new N
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The Friedländer reactions of acetylbenzenes and 2-acetylpyridine with 3-aminonaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde afforded the corresponding 2-phenylbenzo[g]quinoline and 2-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[g]quinoline, respectively. The same reactions of 3-aminonaphthalene-2-carbaldehyde with 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-di- and 1,3,5-triacetylbenzenes, however, afforded a series of corresponding (benzo[g]quinolin-2-yl)benzenes as new N,C-bidentate and unexpected benzo[g]quinoline. Crystallinity, thermal properties, absorption and emission spectral properties of the products were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12827-12841; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812827
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside) on inflammatory response in endothelial cells.
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Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside) on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01) and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12814-12826; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812814
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL) on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells
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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL) on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells from EAE-mice. Copaiba oil (100 µg/mL) inhibited H2O2, NO, IFN-γ TNF-α and IL-17 production spontaneously or after ConA and MOG35–55 stimulation. It is suggested that copaiba oil acts on the mechanism of development of EAE by IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α inhibition, modulating the immune response on both Th1 and Th17 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry and New Regulatory Roles in Biology
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12789-12813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812789
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (1566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The understanding of sulfur bonding is undergoing change. Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems.
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The understanding of sulfur bonding is undergoing change. Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems. The two fields are inter-related because the new understanding of the thiosulfoxide bond helps to explain the newfound roles of sulfur in biology. This review examines the nature of thiosulfoxide (sulfane, S0) sulfur, the history of its regulatory role, its generation in biological systems, and its functions in cells. The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor, iron-sulfur clusters), sulfuration of tRNA, modulation of enzyme activities, and regulating the redox environment by several mechanisms (including the enhancement of the reductive capacity of glutathione). A brief review of the analogous form of selenium suggests that the toxicity of selenium may be due to over-reduction caused by the powerful reductive activity of glutathione perselenide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Momordica Charantia in Sepsis Mice
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12777-12788; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812777
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviate Seringe), a common vegetable in Asia, is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including inflammation. Extant literature indicates that wild bitter gourds have components that activate PPARα and PPARγ. This research probed
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Wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviate Seringe), a common vegetable in Asia, is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including inflammation. Extant literature indicates that wild bitter gourds have components that activate PPARα and PPARγ. This research probed the influence of adding wild bitter gourd to diets on inflammation responses in mice with sepsis induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Male BALB/c mice were divided normal, sepsis, positive control, and three experimental groups. The latter ate diets with low (1%), moderate (2%), and high (10%) ratios of wild bitter gourd lyophilized powder. Before mice were sacrificed, with the exception of the normal group, intraperitoneal injection of LPS induced sepsis in each group; positive control group was injected with LPS after PDTC. This experiment revealed starkly lower weights in groups with added wild bitter gourd than those of the remaining groups. Blood lipids (TG, cholesterol, and NEFA) were also lower in comparison to the sepsis group, and blood glucose concentrations recovered and approached normal levels. Blood biochemistry values related to inflammation reactions indicated GOT, GPT, C-RP, and NO concentrations of groups with added wild bitter gourd were all lower than those of the sepsis group. Secretion levels of the spleen pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α tallied significantly lower in comparison to the sepsis group, whereas secretion levels of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine increased. Expression level of proteins NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2 were significantly inhibited. Results indicate wild bitter gourd in diets promoted lipid metabolism, reducing fat accumulation, and improving low blood glucose in sepsis. Addition of wild bitter gourd can reduce inflammation biochemical markers or indicators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the body, hence improving the inflammation responses in mice with sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Drying Methods on Physicochemical and Immunomodulatory Properties of Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes from Litchi Pulp
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12760-12776; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812760
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 9 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dried litchi pulp has been used in traditional remedies in China for many years to treat various diseases, and the therapeutic activity has been, at least partly, attributed to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. Polysaccharide-protein complexes from vacuum freeze-(VF), vacuum microwave-(VM) and heat
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Dried litchi pulp has been used in traditional remedies in China for many years to treat various diseases, and the therapeutic activity has been, at least partly, attributed to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. Polysaccharide-protein complexes from vacuum freeze-(VF), vacuum microwave-(VM) and heat pump (HP) dried litchi pulp, which were coded as LP-VF, LP-VM and LP-HP, were comparatively studied on the physicochemical and immunomodulatory properties. LP-HP had a predominance of galactose, while glucose was the major sugar component in LP-VF and LP-VM. Compared with LP-VF and LP-VM, LP-HP contained more aspartate and glutamic in binding protein. LP-HP also exhibited a stronger stimulatory effect on splenocyte proliferation at 200 μg/mL and triggered higher NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion from RAW264.7 macrophages. Different drying methods caused the difference in physicochemical properties of polysaccharide-protein complexes from dried litchi pulp, which resulted in significantly different immunomodulatory activity. HP drying appears to be the best method for preparing litchi pulp to improve its immunomodulatory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Effect of Redox Modulating NRF2 Activators on Chronic Kidney Disease
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12727-12759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812727
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (2967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is featured by a progressive decline of kidney function and is mainly caused by chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. CKD is a complex disease due to cardiovascular complications and high morbidity; however, there is no single
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is featured by a progressive decline of kidney function and is mainly caused by chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. CKD is a complex disease due to cardiovascular complications and high morbidity; however, there is no single treatment to improve kidney function in CKD patients. Since biological markers representing oxidative stress are significantly elevated in CKD patients, oxidative stress is receiving attention as a contributing factor to CKD pathology. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NRF2) is a predominant transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide array of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, thiol molecules and their generating enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, and stress response proteins, all of which can counteract inflammatory and oxidative damages. There is considerable experimental evidence suggesting that NRF2 signaling plays a protective role in renal injuries that are caused by various pathologic conditions. In addition, impaired NRF2 activity and consequent target gene repression have been observed in CKD animals. Therefore, a pharmacological intervention activating NRF2 signaling can be beneficial in protecting against kidney dysfunction in CKD. This review article provides an overview of the role of NRF2 in experimental CKD models and describes current findings on the renoprotective effects of naturally occurring NRF2 activators, including sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin, and cinnamic aldehyde. These experimental results, coupled with recent clinical experiences with a synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl, have brought a light of hope for ameliorating CKD progression by preventing oxidative stress and maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Magnetite Nanostructures as Novel Strategies for Anti-Infectious Therapy
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12710-12726; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812710
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review highlights the current situation of antimicrobial resistance and the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in developing novel routes for fighting infectious diseases. The most important two directions developed recently are: (i) improved delivery of antimicrobial compounds based on a drastic decrease
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This review highlights the current situation of antimicrobial resistance and the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in developing novel routes for fighting infectious diseases. The most important two directions developed recently are: (i) improved delivery of antimicrobial compounds based on a drastic decrease of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of the drug used independently; and (ii) inhibition of microbial attachment and biofilm development on coated medical surfaces. These new directions represent promising alternatives in the development of new strategies to eradicate and prevent microbial infections that involve resistant and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Recent promising applications of MNPs, as the development of delivery nanocarriers and improved nanovehicles for the therapy of different diseases are discussed, together with the mechanisms of microbial inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Two Novel α1-AR Agonists Using a High-Throughput Screening Model
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12699-12709; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812699
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
α1-Adrenoceptors (ARs; 1A, 1B, and 1D) have been determined to perform different prominent functions in the physiological responses of the sympathetic nervous system. A high-throughput screening assay (HTS) was set up to detect α1-AR subtype-selective agonists by a dual-luciferase
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α1-Adrenoceptors (ARs; 1A, 1B, and 1D) have been determined to perform different prominent functions in the physiological responses of the sympathetic nervous system. A high-throughput screening assay (HTS) was set up to detect α1-AR subtype-selective agonists by a dual-luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Using the HTS assay, two novel compounds, CHE3 and CHK3, were discovered as α1-ARs agonists in α1-ARs expressed in HEK293 cells. These compounds also showed moderate/weak anti-proliferative activities against tested cancer cell lines. The HTS assay proposed in this study represents a potential method for discovering more α1-AR subtype-selective ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Activation of TRR/TRX System Increase the Level of Indole-3-acetic Acid, Gibberellin A3 and trans-Zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus Trees
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12690-12698; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812690
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and
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Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Cucurbitane Glycosides Derived from Mogroside IIE: Structure-Taste Relationships, Antioxidant Activity, and Acute Toxicity
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12676-12689; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812676
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mogroside IIE is a bitter triterpenoid saponin which is the main component of unripe Luo Han Guo fruit and a precursor of the commercially available sweetener mogroside V. In this study, we developed an enzymatic glycosyl transfer method, by which bitter mogroside IIE
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Mogroside IIE is a bitter triterpenoid saponin which is the main component of unripe Luo Han Guo fruit and a precursor of the commercially available sweetener mogroside V. In this study, we developed an enzymatic glycosyl transfer method, by which bitter mogroside IIE could be converted into a sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture. The reactant concentration, temperature, pH and buffer system were studied. New saponins with the α-glucose group were isolated from the resulting mixtures, and the structures of three components of the extract were determined. The structure-taste relationships of these derivatives were also studied together with those of the natural mogrosides. The number and stereoconfiguration of glucose groups present in the mogroside molecules were found to be the main factor to determine the sweet or bitter taste of a compound. The antioxidant and food safety properties were initially evaluated by their radical scavenging ability and via 7 day mice survival tests, respectively. The results showed that the sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture has the same favorable physiological and safety characteristics as the natural mogrosides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Prebiotic Potential of Agave angustifolia Haw Fructans with Different Degrees of Polymerization
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12660-12675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812660
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1) and β-(2→6) linked fructosyl chains attached to
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Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1) and β-(2→6) linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF) with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3–60 fructose units), medium (2–40) and low (2–22) DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants in Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus)
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12640-12659; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812640
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with ethanol was used to extract the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities of Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize four independent variables: ethanol concentration (%), amplitude (%), duty cycle (W/s) and
[...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with ethanol was used to extract the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities of Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize four independent variables: ethanol concentration (%), amplitude (%), duty cycle (W/s) and extraction time (min). Antioxidant compounds were determined by total phenolic content and total flavonoid content to be 1.4 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 45 g catechin equivalent/100 g DW, respectively. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging capacity assay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging capacity assay to be 1,961.3 and 2,423.3 µmol Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC)/100 g DW, respectively. Based on the optimal conditions, experimental values were reported to be close to the predicted value by RSM modeling (p > 0.05), indicating the suitability of UAE for extracting the antioxidants of Misai Kucing. Rosmarinic acid, kaempferol-rutinoside and sinesetine were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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