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Special Issue "Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu (Website)

Department of Science and Engineereing of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, RO-011061, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: synthesis and characterization of nanobiomaterials, pharmaceutical nanotechnology, drug targeting; drug delivery; anti-biofilm surfaces; nanomodified surfaces; thin films; natural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to their biocompatibility, nanometric scale, high sorption capacity, and chemical stability, Fe3O4 nanostructures have many applications in the biomedical field. Fe3O4 nanostructures have been extensively used in drug targeting, anti-tumor treatments, modulation of biofilm development, wound healing, stabilization of essential oils, magnetic resonance imaging, antimicrobial therapy, and drug delivery. The aim of this Special Issue of Molecules is to provide an updated and integrated focus on the fabrication and characterization of suitable Fe3O4-based nano-active materials; the issue will highlight the utility of novel, customized research models and their biomedical applications. The Special Issue scope is broad and includes the following areas: Lab-on-Chip devices, Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique, therapeutic magnetic micro- and nano-spheres, antimicrobial magnetic polymers, Fe3O4 nanostructured biosurfaces that prevent microbial adherence, Fe3O4-based nanostructured biomaterials, and nanobioactive systems, based on essential oils, which eradicate microbial infections, targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy, thin films, etc.

Dr. Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • magnetite nanostructures
  • drug targeting
  • anti-tumor treatments
  • modulation of biofilm development
  • wound healing
  • stabilization of essential oils
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • antimicrobial therapy and drug delivery
  • cancer therapy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Efficiency of Vanilla, Patchouli and Ylang Ylang Essential Oils Stabilized by Iron Oxide@C14 Nanostructures against Bacterial Adherence and Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17943-17956; doi:10.3390/molecules191117943
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (9177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic [...] Read more.
Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Bioevaluation of Novel Anti-Biofilm Coatings Based on PVP/Fe3O4 Nanostructures and 2-((4-Ethylphenoxy)methyl)-N- (arylcarbamothioyl)benzamides
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12011-12030; doi:10.3390/molecules190812011
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 24 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
PDF Full-text (3346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel derivatives were prepared by reaction of aromatic amines with 2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl)benzoyl isothiocyanate, affording the N-[2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl) benzoyl]-Nꞌ-(substituted phenyl)thiourea. Structural elucidation of these compounds was performed by IR, NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new compounds were used in combination with Fe3O4 and polyvinylpyrrolidone [...] Read more.
Novel derivatives were prepared by reaction of aromatic amines with 2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl)benzoyl isothiocyanate, affording the N-[2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl) benzoyl]-Nꞌ-(substituted phenyl)thiourea. Structural elucidation of these compounds was performed by IR, NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new compounds were used in combination with Fe3O4 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for the coating of medical surfaces. In our experiments, catheter pieces were coated by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The microbial adherence ability was investigated in 6 multi-well plates by using culture based methods. The obtained surfaces were also assessed for their cytotoxicity with respect to osteoblast cells, by using fluorescence microscopy and MTT assay. The prepared surfaces by advanced laser processing inhibited the adherence and biofilm development ability of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested strains while cytotoxic effects on the 3T3-E1 preosteoblasts embedded in layer shaped alginate hydrogels were not observed. These results suggest that the obtained medical surfaces, based on the novel thiourea derivatives and magnetic nanoparticles with a polymeric shell could represent a promising alternative for the development of new and effective anti-infective strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Brassica oleracea Chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1) and Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL) in Magnetic Alginate Beads: An Enzymatic Evaluation in the Corresponding Proteins
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 11800-11815; doi:10.3390/molecules190811800
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3126 KB) | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase [...] Read more.
Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1) or Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) in magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded alginate composite beads. The catalytic activity and specific activity of the BoCLH1 and CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads were evaluated. Results show that the activity of immobilized BoCLH1 in magnetic alginate composite beads (3.36 ± 0.469 U/g gel) was higher than that of immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (2.96 ± 0.264 U/g gel). In addition, the specific activity of BoCLH1 beads (10.90 ± 1.521 U/mg protein) was higher than that immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (8.52 ± 0.758 U/mg protein). In contrast, the immobilized CRL in magnetic alginate composite beads exhibited a lower enzyme activity (11.81 ± 0.618) than CRL immobilized in alginate beads (94.83 ± 7.929), and the specific activity of immobilized CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads (1.99 ± 0.104) was lower than immobilized lipase in alginate beads (15.01 ± 1.255). A study of the degradation of magnetic alginate composite beads immersed in acidic solution (pH 3) shows that the magnetic alginate composite beads remain intact in acidic solution for at least 6 h, indicating the maintenance of the enzyme catalytic effect in low-pH environment. Finally, the enzyme immobilized magnetic alginate composite beads could be collected by an external magnet and reused for at least six cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle Size Control of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Excess Ligands as a Function of Reaction Temperature and Time
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 11395-11403; doi:10.3390/molecules190811395
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The novel synthesis of monodisperse magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles of varying sizes using a solventless synthetic method was developed. Iron salt was treated in excess oleylamine and oleic acid as ligands. The effect of the reaction temperature and time on [...] Read more.
The novel synthesis of monodisperse magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles of varying sizes using a solventless synthetic method was developed. Iron salt was treated in excess oleylamine and oleic acid as ligands. The effect of the reaction temperature and time on the particle size was investigated and the particle sizes were easily tuned from 5.3 to 20.4 nm by changing the reaction temperature and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared in One-Step by Precipitation in a High-Aqueous Phase Content Reverse Microemulsion
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9273-9287; doi:10.3390/molecules19079273
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion in the presence of chitosan. The high-aqueous phase concentration led to productivities close to 0.49 g CMNP/100 g microemulsion; much higher than those characteristic of [...] Read more.
Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion in the presence of chitosan. The high-aqueous phase concentration led to productivities close to 0.49 g CMNP/100 g microemulsion; much higher than those characteristic of precipitation in reverse microemulsions for preparing magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles present a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter of 4.5 nm; appearing to be formed of a single crystallite; furthermore they present superparamagnetism and high magnetization values; close to 49 emu/g. Characterization of CMNP suggests that chitosan is present as a non-homogeneous very thin layer; which explains the slight reduction in the magnetization value of CMNP in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles show high heavy ion removal capability; as demonstrated by their use in the treatment of Pb2+ aqueous solutions; from which lead ions were completely removed within 10 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle MAPLE Fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum Antimicrobial Surfaces for Improved Gastrostomy Tubes
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 8981-8994; doi:10.3390/molecules19078981
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 14 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave Resonant and Zero-Field Absorption Study of Doped Magnetite Prepared by a Co-Precipitation Method
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8387-8401; doi:10.3390/molecules19068387
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line [...] Read more.
Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-Loaded Alginate Composite Beads for Removing Dye from Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8276-8288; doi:10.3390/molecules19068276
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this [...] Read more.
Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle Biocompatible Fe3O4 Increases the Efficacy of Amoxicillin Delivery against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
Molecules 2014, 19(4), 5013-5027; doi:10.3390/molecules19045013
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO), revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the [...] Read more.
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO), revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle Beads-Based Electrochemical Assay for the Detection of Influenza Hemagglutinin Labeled with CdTe Quantum Dots
Molecules 2013, 18(12), 15573-15586; doi:10.3390/molecules181215573
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we describe a beads-based assay for rapid, sensitive and specific isolation and detection of influenza vaccine hemagglutinin (HA). Amplification of the hemagglutinin signal resulted from binding of an electrochemical label as quantum dots (QDs). For detection of the metal [...] Read more.
In this study we describe a beads-based assay for rapid, sensitive and specific isolation and detection of influenza vaccine hemagglutinin (HA). Amplification of the hemagglutinin signal resulted from binding of an electrochemical label as quantum dots (QDs). For detection of the metal and protein part of the resulting HA-CdTe complex, two differential pulse voltammetric methods were used. The procedure includes automated robotic isolation and electrochemical analysis of the isolated product. The isolation procedure was based on the binding of paramagnetic particles (MPs) with glycan (Gly), where glycan was used as the specific receptor for linkage of the QD-labeled hemagglutinin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21506-21528; doi:10.3390/molecules191221506
Received: 18 November 2014 / Revised: 16 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the past few years, nanoparticles have been used for various applications including, but not limited to, protein immobilization, bioseparation, environmental treatment, biomedical and bioengineering usage, and food analysis. Among all types of nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, especially Fe3O [...] Read more.
During the past few years, nanoparticles have been used for various applications including, but not limited to, protein immobilization, bioseparation, environmental treatment, biomedical and bioengineering usage, and food analysis. Among all types of nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, especially Fe3O4, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique magnetic properties and the ability of being easily chemical modified for improved biocompatibility, dispersibility. This review covers recent advances in the fabrication of functional materials based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with their possibilities and limitations for application in different fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessReview Magnetite Nanostructures as Novel Strategies for Anti-Infectious Therapy
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12710-12726; doi:10.3390/molecules190812710
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review highlights the current situation of antimicrobial resistance and the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in developing novel routes for fighting infectious diseases. The most important two directions developed recently are: (i) improved delivery of antimicrobial compounds based on a drastic [...] Read more.
This review highlights the current situation of antimicrobial resistance and the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in developing novel routes for fighting infectious diseases. The most important two directions developed recently are: (i) improved delivery of antimicrobial compounds based on a drastic decrease of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of the drug used independently; and (ii) inhibition of microbial attachment and biofilm development on coated medical surfaces. These new directions represent promising alternatives in the development of new strategies to eradicate and prevent microbial infections that involve resistant and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Recent promising applications of MNPs, as the development of delivery nanocarriers and improved nanovehicles for the therapy of different diseases are discussed, together with the mechanisms of microbial inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Yang, C.-H., et al. Immobilization of Brassica oleracea Chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1) and Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL) in Magnetic Alginate Beads: An Enzymatic Evaluation in the Corresponding Proteins. Molecules 2014, 19, 11800-11815
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7325-7328; doi:10.3390/molecules20047325
Received: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The authors wish to correct Scheme 1, and Figures 1, 4 and 7 in [1] as follows. Scheme 1 should include phytol and fatty acid. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)

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