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Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12559-12576; doi:10.3390/molecules190812559

Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs)
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Abstract

In this study, the effect and mechanism of a series of ursolic acid (UA) derivatives on glucose uptake were investigated in a Caco-2 cells model. Their effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress were also demonstrated in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-glucose (2-NBDG) was used as a fluorescein in Caco-2 cells model to screen UA derivatives by glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1, GLUT-2). Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered with these derivatives for 4 weeks of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin levels, biochemical parameters, lipid levels, and oxidative stress markers were finally evaluated. The results of this study indicated that compounds 10 and 11 significantly inhibited 2-NBDG uptake under both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent conditions by decreasing SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in the Caco-2 cells model. Further in vivo studies revealed that compound 10 significantly reduced hyperglycemia by increasing levels of serum insulin, total protein, and albumin, while the fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake were restored much closer to those of normal rats. Compounds 10 and 11 showed hypolipidemic activity by decreasing the total amounts of cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Furthermore, compound 10 showed antioxidant potential which was confirmed by elevation of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. It was concluded that compound 10 caused an apparent inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, compound 10 could be developed as a potentially complementary therapeutic or prophylactic agent for diabetics mellitus and its complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; ursolic acid derivatives; Caco-2 cell; 2-NBDG; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat diabetes mellitus; ursolic acid derivatives; Caco-2 cell; 2-NBDG; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, P.; He, P.; Zhao, S.; Huang, T.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, K. Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Molecules 2014, 19, 12559-12576.

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