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Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12577-12590; doi:10.3390/molecules190812577

Developments in the Fermentation Process and Quality Improvement Strategies for Mead Production

1
Department of Anatomy and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Galicia E-27002, Spain
2
CIMO-Mountain Research Center, Agricultural College of Bragança, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Bragança E 5301-855, Portugal
3
Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas, Núcleo de Estudo dos Insetos, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas BA E 44380-000, Brazil
4
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo E-27080, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads’ quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: mead production; fermentative microorganisms; fermentation progress; quality procedures; honey mead production; fermentative microorganisms; fermentation progress; quality procedures; honey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iglesias, A.; Pascoal, A.; Choupina, A.B.; Carvalho, C.A.; Feás, X.; Estevinho, L.M. Developments in the Fermentation Process and Quality Improvement Strategies for Mead Production. Molecules 2014, 19, 12577-12590.

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