Special Issue "Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Erosion and Sediment Transport".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 4890

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yu Huang
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Interests: geohazards and geodisasters; engineering geology; geotechnical engineering
Prof. Dr. Jin Sun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
Interests: granular rheology; unsteady flow; DEM simulation
Dr. Chongqiang Zhu
E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Interests: geophysical flow; granular rheology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Debris flow is one of the most catastrophic geological events around the word. Strong earthquakes and heavy rainfall events are the most significant contributors for the frequent occurrence of large debris flow. Actually, debris flow has been a major natural threat for the security of people, infrastructure, lifelines, and economic activities in many countries. Understanding the debris flow disaster and put forward effective control measures is a societal priority. However, there are significant technical challenges associated with the mechanism and prevention of debris flow disaster.

This Special Issue will cover the recent advances and future developments concerning the debris flow in the initiation mechanism of debris flow, unsteady flow performance, channel erosion mechanism, debris flow impact estimation, regional risk assessment, optimization design method of debris flow mitigation measures, etc. In additional to these main topics, we further encourage the submission of original research and synthetic reviews through filed investigations, novel data acquisition techniques, laboratory and model experiment research, new numerical approaches, and the application of artificial intelligence approaches.

Prof. Dr. Yu Huang
Prof. Dr. Jin Sun
Dr. Chongqiang Zhu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • initiation mechanism of debris flow
  • unsteady flow performance
  • channel erosion
  • debris flow impact
  • regional risk assessment
  • optimization design of debris flow mitigation measures
  • laboratory and field investigations
  • novel numerical methods and algorithms

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster
Water 2022, 14(7), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071143 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Debris flow is a disaster that frequently occurs in mountainous regions worldwide due to climate change and human activities and can lead to serious economic losses and casualties [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)

Research

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Article
Effects of Crushing Characteristics on Rheological Characteristics of Particle Systems
Water 2022, 14(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040532 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 371
Abstract
A particle system’s large-deformation shear flow exhibits obvious random characteristics, making accurate modeling of the particle system difficult. Particle systems, which are frequently used in engineering, are prone to breakage, which introduces additional uncertainty into the system. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
A particle system’s large-deformation shear flow exhibits obvious random characteristics, making accurate modeling of the particle system difficult. Particle systems, which are frequently used in engineering, are prone to breakage, which introduces additional uncertainty into the system. The purpose of this study was to conduct ring-shear experiments on a variety of common engineering materials in order to quantify the effect of the dynamic crushing process of the particle system on the instability of shear flow. Different shear fracture characteristics may result in a change in the volume trend of the system, from dilatancy to shrinkage. While the mean value of the crushable system’s stress ratio does not increase with shear rate, the stress ratio’s fluctuation characteristic parameters are negatively correlated with shear rate. As particles become more easily sheared, the initial value of the stress ratio fluctuation increases. The effect of shear rate on the fluctuation in the system stress ratio is determined indirectly by the degree of system fragmentation. The study of the particle system’s fluctuation characteristics will aid in developing a stochastic dynamic model for the landslide system in the future, allowing for improved prediction and prevention of landslide disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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Article
Effects of Barrier Stiffness on Debris Flow Dynamic Impact—II: Numerical Simulation
Water 2022, 14(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020182 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 388
Abstract
The destructive and impactful forces of debris flow commonly causes local damage to engineering structures. The effect of a deformable barrier on the impact dynamics is important in engineering design. In this study, a flow–structure coupled with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model was presented [...] Read more.
The destructive and impactful forces of debris flow commonly causes local damage to engineering structures. The effect of a deformable barrier on the impact dynamics is important in engineering design. In this study, a flow–structure coupled with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model was presented to investigate the effects of barrier stiffness on the debris impact. A comparison of the results of physical tests and simulation results revealed that the proposed smoothed particle hydrodynamics model effectively reproduces the flow kinematics and time history of the impact force. Even slight deflections of the deformable barrier lead to obvious attenuation of the peak impact pressure. Additionally, deformable barriers with lower stiffness tend to deform more downstream upon loading, shifting the deposited sand toward the active failure mode and generating less static earth pressure. When the debris flow has a higher frontal velocity, the impact force on the barrier is dominated by the dynamic component and there is an appreciable effect of the stiffness of the deformable barrier on load attenuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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Article
Effects of Barrier Stiffness on Debris Flow Dynamic Impact—I: Laboratory Flume Test
Water 2022, 14(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020177 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 431
Abstract
Debris flows often cause local damage to engineering structures by exerting destructive impact forces. The debris-flow–deformable-barrier interaction is a significant issue in engineering design. In this study, a large physical flume model test device was independently designed to repeatedly reproduce the flow and [...] Read more.
Debris flows often cause local damage to engineering structures by exerting destructive impact forces. The debris-flow–deformable-barrier interaction is a significant issue in engineering design. In this study, a large physical flume model test device was independently designed to repeatedly reproduce the flow and impact process of debris flow. Three physical flume tests were performed to investigate the effect of barrier stiffness on the debris flow impact. The flow kinematics of debris flow with three barrier stiffness values are essentially consistent with the process of impact–run-up–falling–pile-up. The development of a dead zone provided a cushion to diminish the impact of the follow-up debris flow on the barrier. The peak impact forces were attenuated as the barrier stiffness decreased. The slight deflections of a deformable barrier were sufficiently effective for peak load attenuation by up to 30%. It showed that the decrease of the barrier stiffness had a buffer effect on the debris flow impact and attenuated the peak impact force. And with the decrease of the barrier stiffness, when the barrier was impacted by the same soil types, the recoverable elastic strain will be larger, and the strain peak will be more obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Surge Waves Generated by Submarine Debris Flows
Water 2021, 13(16), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162276 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Submarine debris flows and their generated waves are common disasters in Nature that may destroy offshore infrastructure and cause fatalities. As the propagation of submarine debris flows is complex, involving granular material sliding and wave generation, it is difficult to simulate the process [...] Read more.
Submarine debris flows and their generated waves are common disasters in Nature that may destroy offshore infrastructure and cause fatalities. As the propagation of submarine debris flows is complex, involving granular material sliding and wave generation, it is difficult to simulate the process using conventional numerical models. In this study, a numerical model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm is proposed to simulate the propagation of submarine debris flow and predict its generated waves. This model contains the Bingham fluid model for granular material, the Newtonian fluid model for the ambient water, and a multiphase granular flow algorithm. Moreover, a boundary treatment technique is applied to consider the repulsive force from the solid boundary. Underwater rigid block slide and underwater sand flow were simulated as numerical examples to verify the proposed SPH model. The computed wave profiles were compared with the observed results recorded in references. The good agreement between the numerical results and experimental data indicates the stability and accuracy of the proposed SPH model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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Article
Laboratory Analysis of Debris Flow Characteristics and Berm Performance
Water 2021, 13(16), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162223 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
In this study, laboratory tests were used to determine the deposition characteristics (runout distance, lateral width, and deposition area) of debris flow and their relationships with the flow characteristics (flow velocity and flow depth) according to the presence of a berm. An experimental [...] Read more.
In this study, laboratory tests were used to determine the deposition characteristics (runout distance, lateral width, and deposition area) of debris flow and their relationships with the flow characteristics (flow velocity and flow depth) according to the presence of a berm. An experimental flume 1.3 to 1.9 m long, 0.15 m wide, and 0.3 m high was employed to investigate the effects of channel slope and volumetric concentration of sediment with and without the berm. The runout distance (0.201–1.423 m), lateral width (0.045–0.519 m), and deposition area (0.008–0.519 m2) increased as the channel slope increased and as the volumetric concentration of sediment decreased. These quantities also increased with the flow velocity and flow depth. In addition, the maximum reductions in the runout distance, lateral width, and deposition area were 69.1%, 65.9%, and 93%, respectively, upon berm installation. The results of this study illustrate general debris flow characteristics according to berm installation; the reported relationship magnitudes are specific to the experimental conditions described herein. However, the results of this study contribute to the design of site-specific berms in the future by providing data describing the utility and function of berms in mitigating debris flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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Article
Numerical Investigation on the Kinetic Characteristics of the Yigong Debris Flow in Tibet, China
Water 2021, 13(8), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081076 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
To analyze the kinetic characteristics of a debris flow that occurred on 9 April 2000 in Tibet, China, a meshfree numerical method named smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is introduced, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional models are established in this work. Based on the numerical [...] Read more.
To analyze the kinetic characteristics of a debris flow that occurred on 9 April 2000 in Tibet, China, a meshfree numerical method named smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is introduced, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional models are established in this work. Based on the numerical simulation, the motion process of this debris flow is reproduced, and the kinetic characteristics are analyzed combining with the field investigation data. In the kinetic analysis, the flow velocity, runout distance, deposition, and energy features are discussed. Simulation results show that the debris flow mass undergoes an acceleration stage after failure, then the kinetic energy gradually dissipates due to the friction and collision during debris flow propagation. Finally, the debris flow mass blocks the Yigong river and forms a huge dam and an extensive barrier lake. The peak velocity is calculated to be about 100 m/s, and the runout distance is approximately 8000 m. The simulation results basically match the data measured in field, thus verifying the good performance of the presented SPH model. This approach can predict hazardous areas and estimate the hazard intensity of catastrophic debris flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Prevention of Debris Flow Disaster)
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