Using New and Emerging Technologies to Remove Pollutants in Water/Wastewater

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 November 2022) | Viewed by 11570

Special Issue Editors

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Interests: adsorption technologies; materials fabrication; surface modification; membrane capsules; magnetic nanoparticles; metal–organic frameworks and solar-assisted biochar for water/wastewater treatment applications
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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Interests: emerging pollutants; refractory organic pollutants; biological wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation treatment; toxicity; bioremediation; biotransformation; photodegradation; micro- and nanoplastics pollution

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Guest Editor
School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061, China
Interests: development of cost-effective and cutting-edge technologies for water/wastewater treatment; groundwater remediation; seawater desalination and resource utilization of seawater (salt water)

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Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Deanship of Educational Services, Qassim University, Buraidah 51452, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Interests: organic pollutants; heavy metals pollution; biological wastewater treatment; adsorption technologies; material fabrication; bioremediation; diesel oil degrading bacterial strains
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Considering the increase in water contamination by toxic pollutants, water quality experts are focusing the innovative future technologies for water/wastewater treatment (W/WWT). On the other hand, the treatment of refractory organic and inorganic pollutants is increasing the threats to the survival of conventional wastewater treatment (WWTs) technologies. Regarding this, there are a number of physical, chemical, and biological processes for acquiring high-quality effluents; however, these treatment technologies have shown some limitations regarding the specific pollutant removal efficiencies, vulnerability to environmental pollutants, higher cost and energy requirements, excessive sludge volume, toxicity issues, etc. In addition, the high installation and operational costs of advanced treatment technologies have shifted research interest to the development of economical and reliable technology for the management of these emerging pollutants. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to showcase recent advancements and progresses in the development of sustainable and cutting-edge technologies to remove pollutants in water/wastewater by introducing novel materials and modifying system design. This Special Issue will mainly consider novel research works and review articles focusing on (but not limited to) toxic and emerging pollutants, biological wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation treatment, bioremediation, adsorption, photodegradation, adsorbent materials, catalytic materials, modeling and simulation, membrane-based materials, novel material fabrication and characterization, bioreactors, metal–organic frameworks and biochar-based materials, etc. In addition, economic analysis of various developing stage technologies for water/wastewater treatment will be substantially encouraged and considered.

Dr. Imran Ali
Prof. Dr. Juying Li
Prof. Dr. Changsheng Peng
Prof. Dr. Iffat Naz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • emerging pollutants
  • refractory organic pollutants
  • heavy metals
  • biological wastewater treatment
  • advance oxidation treatment
  • bioremediation
  • adsorption
  • photodegradation
  • modern water/wastewater treatment
  • adsorbent materials
  • catalytic materials
  • modeling and simulation
  • membrane-based materials
  • material fabrication and characterization
  • bioreactors
  • metal–organic frameworks
  • biochar-based materials

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 9386 KiB  
Article
Performance Enhancement of Specific Adsorbents for Hardness Reduction of Drinking Water and Groundwater
by Parnian Ghanbarizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Parivazh, Mohsen Abbasi, Shahriar Osfouri, Mohammad Javad Dianat, Amir Rostami, Mahdieh Dibaj and Mohammad Akrami
Water 2022, 14(17), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172749 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
One of the most advantageous methods for lowering water hardness is the use of low-cost adsorbents. In this research, the effectiveness of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type), activated carbon, and activated alumina was evaluated. These adsorbents were sequentially modified by NaCl, HCl, and NaCl-HCL [...] Read more.
One of the most advantageous methods for lowering water hardness is the use of low-cost adsorbents. In this research, the effectiveness of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type), activated carbon, and activated alumina was evaluated. These adsorbents were sequentially modified by NaCl, HCl, and NaCl-HCL to improve their ability to adsorb. The contact time and the amount of adsorbent used in the adsorption process were investigated experimentally to determine their effects. The results indicated that the best contact time for hardness reduction was 90 min, and the best concentrations of adsorbents in drinking water for zeolite, activated carbon, and activated alumina were 40, 60, and 60 g/L, respectively. In addition, for groundwater, these figures were 60, 40, and 40 g/L, respectively. The greatest possible decreases in total hardness under the best conditions by natural zeolite, activated carbon, and activated alumina adsorbents were 93.07%, 30.76%, and 56.92%, respectively, for drinking water and 59.23%, 15.67 %, and 39.72% for groundwater. According to the results obtained from experiments, NaCl-modified zeolite, natural zeolite, and NaCl-HCl-modified activated carbon performed better in terms of parameter reduction. The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, whereas the kinetic data for the adsorption process were consistent with the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium study of the adsorption process by the Morris–Weber model revealed that both chemical and physical adsorption are involved. Full article
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19 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Biogeochemical Behavior of Lead and Nickel as Influenced by Phosphatic Fertilizer Applied to Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Grown under City Effluent Irrigation
by Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Awais Akram Maan, Aiyeshah Alhodaib, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal, Tayyaba Naz, Mazhar Iqbal Zafar, Humaria Fatima, Rashida Parveen and Iffat Naz
Water 2022, 14(9), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091319 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The hydrology of arid to semi-arid regions is substantially different from that in humid regions due to scarce hydrological data distributions with dry climates and strong evapo-transpirative conditions. In the perspective of global water shortage, food security for all of the living beings [...] Read more.
The hydrology of arid to semi-arid regions is substantially different from that in humid regions due to scarce hydrological data distributions with dry climates and strong evapo-transpirative conditions. In the perspective of global water shortage, food security for all of the living beings has become a matter of great concern. Efficient use of water resources both in urban and rural environments and application of non-conventional water resources for irrigation are becoming increasingly important. In order to sustain crop production, the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops could be a good option. A pot experiment was set up to evaluate effects of different doses of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer on lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) phyto-availability by two cultivars of rice irrigated with city effluent. Experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) each with three replications. The results showed effective immobilization of Pb with applied phosphatic fertilizer. Among all of the tested treatments, the most effective treatment to reduce phyto-availability of Pb was T4 (248 kg P ha−1) due to antagonistic interaction. While Ni showed inconsistent behavior with both synergistic and antagonistic interaction (biphasic) to applied phosphorus (P) rates. Data regarding various growth parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, shoot and root dry weights, straw and grain yields, and physiological attributes such as total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) responses to P application. An increasing trend was revealed in determined parameters with increased P application rates, with the exception of decreased plant height. The conclusion of the present remedial approach indicated that addition of P can significantly reduce the risks of rice grown under city effluent irrigation containing high Pb and Ni contents. Full article
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20 pages, 5766 KiB  
Article
Remediation of Chromium (VI) from Groundwater by Metal-Based Biochar under Anaerobic Conditions
by Yating Jiang, Min Dai, Fei Yang, Imran Ali, Iffat Naz and Changsheng Peng
Water 2022, 14(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060894 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Iron salt-modified biochar has been widely used to remove Cr(VI) pollution due to the combination of the generated iron oxides and biochar, which can bring positive charge and rich redox activity. However, there are few comprehensive studies on the methods of modifying biochar [...] Read more.
Iron salt-modified biochar has been widely used to remove Cr(VI) pollution due to the combination of the generated iron oxides and biochar, which can bring positive charge and rich redox activity. However, there are few comprehensive studies on the methods of modifying biochar with different iron salts. In this study, two iron salt (FeCl3 and Fe(NO3)3) modification methods were used to prepare two Fe-modified biochar materials for removing Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater environment. It was revealed by systematic characterization that FeCl3@BC prepared via the FeCl3 modification method, has larger pore size, higher zeta potential and iron oxide content, and has higher Cr(VI) adsorption-reduction performance efficiency as compared to Fe(NO3)3@BC prepared via Fe(NO3)3 modification method. Combined with XRD and XPS analyses, Fe3O4 is the key active component for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The experimental results have shown that acidic conditions promoted Cr(VI) removal, while competing ions (SO42 and PO43) inhibited Cr(VI) removal by FeCl3@BC. The Elovich model and intra-particle diffusion model of FeCl3@BC can describe the adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) well, indicating that both the high activation energy adsorption process and intra-particle diffusion control the removal process of Cr(VI). The Freundlich model (R2 > 0.999) indicated that there were unevenly distributed chemisorptions centers on the FeCl3@BC surface. Stability experiments exposed that FeCl3@BC was stable under neutral, acidic, and alkaline conditions. Furthermore, the main mechanisms of FeCl3@BC removal of Cr(VI) include electrostatic adsorption, chemical reduction, ion exchange, and co-precipitation. In conclusion, our findings provide a new insight for the selection of iron salt-modified biochar methods, and will also be beneficial for the preparation of more efficient Fe-modified biochars in the future. Full article
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12 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Application of BiVO4–Microalgae Combined Treatment to Remove High Concentration Mixture of Sulfamethazine and Sulfadiazine
by Wan Liu, Shan Chen, Han Zhou, Xianyun Wang, Houtao Xu, Liqing Wang, Wei Zhang and Lijing Chen
Water 2022, 14(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050718 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Sulfonamides (SAs) are the most common and bio-refractory antibiotics detected in surface water systems, which cause long-term toxic effects on aquatic organisms. This study used the combination of a BiVO4 photocatalyst and freshwater micro-green alga (Dictyosphaerium sp.) to remove sulfadiazine (SD) [...] Read more.
Sulfonamides (SAs) are the most common and bio-refractory antibiotics detected in surface water systems, which cause long-term toxic effects on aquatic organisms. This study used the combination of a BiVO4 photocatalyst and freshwater micro-green alga (Dictyosphaerium sp.) to remove sulfadiazine (SD) and sulfamethazine (SM2) at an initial concentration of 5 mg/L (1:1 v/v) for 7 days. We set up three gradient concentrations of BiVO4 (0.5, 1 and 2 g/L) combined with the same concentration (80 mg/L) of Dictyosphaerium sp. and then prepared corresponding concentrations of pure BiVO4 and pure microalgae as controls. We evaluated the ability of BiVO4 and Dictyosphaerium sp. combined technology to remove SAs by observing the removal efficiency of antibiotics and explained the degradation mechanism of antibiotics and the key role of microalgae by studying the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inorganic ions (nitrogen, sulfur). The results showed that the degradation rate of these two SAs in the 0.5 g/L BiVO4–algae group could reach >96% within 7 d, which was higher than that in the 2 g/L BiVO4 group (93%) and the algae group (28%). The increased degradation efficiency of SAs in BiVO4 and microalgae systems was mainly due to the increased amount of ROS. Meanwhile, more SAs were degraded to inorganic compounds such as NH4+-N, NO3-N and SO42−-S under ROS stress. It was found that microalgae can absorb the degradation products of antibiotics such as NH4+-N for their own growth, thereby reducing the toxicity of antibiotic by-products. In addition, BiVO4 had no damaging effect on the autofluorescence intensity of the microalgae. Our study provides an efficient and eco-economic approach to remove antibiotics using visible-light irradiation in aquatic environments and provides new insights into the biological removal of other antibiotic contaminants in aquatic environments. Full article
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16 pages, 4154 KiB  
Article
Simulated Modelling, Design, and Performance Evaluation of a Pilot-Scale Trickling Filter System for Removal of Carbonaceous Pollutants from Domestic Wastewater
by Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Anees, Shama Sehar, Saleh S. Alhewairini, Devendra P. Saroj and Safia Ahmed
Water 2021, 13(22), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223210 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to assess the wastewater treatment efficiency of a low-cost pilot-scale trickling filter (TF) system under a prevailing temperature range of 12 °C–38 °C. Operational data (both influent and effluent) for 330 days were collected from the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to assess the wastewater treatment efficiency of a low-cost pilot-scale trickling filter (TF) system under a prevailing temperature range of 12 °C–38 °C. Operational data (both influent and effluent) for 330 days were collected from the pilot-scale TF for various physicochemical and biological parameters. Average percentage reductions were observed in the ranges of 52–72, 51–73, 61–81, and 74–89% for BOD5, COD, TDS, and TSS, respectively, for the whole year except the winter season, where a 74–88% reduction was observed only for TSS, whilst BOD5, COD, and TDS demonstrated reductions in the ranges of 13–50, 13–49, and 23–61%, respectively. Furthermore, reductions of about 43–55% and 57–86% in fecal coliform count were observed after the 1st and 6th day of treatment, respectively, throughout study period. Moreover, the pilot-scale TF model was based on zero-order kinetics calibrated at 20 °C using experimental BOD5 data obtained in the month of October to calculate the k20 value, which was further validated to determine the kt value for each BOD5 experimental setup. The model resulted in more accurate measurements of the pilot-scale TF and could help to improve its ability to handle different types of wastewater in the future. Full article
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