Special Issue "Cell-Host Interplay for Viral Nuclear Import"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesca Di Nunzio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Virology, VMV, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Interests: HIV; viral nuclear import; nuclear organization; nuclear pore complex

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Access to the nuclear environment offers numerous benefits for viral replication and persistence. During viral infection, self-defense mechanisms are activated in the host cells to survive in response to viral invasion. Many of these mechanisms interfere with the viral journey towards the nucleus. However, viruses have evolved divergent strategies to evade an antiviral innate immunity response and to penetrate the nuclear compartment to deliver their genome. Most of them hijack the nuclear pore complex (NPC) of post-mitotic cells to reach the host nuclear environment. Usually, the nuclear entry step represents the bottleneck for the replication of many viruses due to the large size of their capsid. To counteract this steric obstacle, viruses evolved intriguing and fascinating strategies to cross the NPC to reach the host nucleus to generate new progeny. Those viruses establish an interplay between their own proteins and host factors to control the outcome of infection. Increasing the understanding of these processes will trigger the design of new drug strategies to tackle host–pathogen interactions for viral cures. Of note, in recent years, cutting-edge technologies have begun to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the viral nuclear entry. This Special Issue will overview mechanisms of nuclear import developed by viruses to invade the host.

Dr. Francesca Di Nunzio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • viruses
  • nuclear import
  • host-viral interactions
  • nuclear pore and nuclear dynamics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Role of Transportin-SR2 in HIV-1 Nuclear Import
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050829 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 198
Abstract
The HIV replication cycle depends on the interaction of viral proteins with proteins of the host. Unraveling host–pathogen interactions during the infection is of great importance for understanding the pathogenesis and the development of antiviral therapies. To date HIV uncoating and nuclear import [...] Read more.
The HIV replication cycle depends on the interaction of viral proteins with proteins of the host. Unraveling host–pathogen interactions during the infection is of great importance for understanding the pathogenesis and the development of antiviral therapies. To date HIV uncoating and nuclear import are the most debated steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Despite numerous studies during past decades, there is still much controversy with respect to the identity and the role of viral and host factors involved in these processes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the role of transportin-SR2 as a host cell factor during active nuclear transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Host Interplay for Viral Nuclear Import)
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Open AccessReview
Early Steps of Hepatitis B Life Cycle: From Capsid Nuclear Import to cccDNA Formation
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050757 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern, with more than 250 million chronically infected people who are at high risk of developing liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although antiviral treatments efficiently control virus replication and improve liver function, [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern, with more than 250 million chronically infected people who are at high risk of developing liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although antiviral treatments efficiently control virus replication and improve liver function, they cannot cure HBV infection. Viral persistence is due to the maintenance of the viral circular episomal DNA, called covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), in the nuclei of infected cells. cccDNA not only resists antiviral therapies, but also escapes innate antiviral surveillance. This viral DNA intermediate plays a central role in HBV replication, as cccDNA is the template for the transcription of all viral RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which in turn feeds the formation of cccDNA through a step of reverse transcription. The establishment and/or expression of cccDNA is thus a prime target for the eradication of HBV. In this review, we provide an update on the current knowledge on the initial steps of HBV infection, from the nuclear import of the nucleocapsid to the formation of the cccDNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Host Interplay for Viral Nuclear Import)
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Open AccessReview
The Nuclear Pore Complex Is a Key Target of Viral Proteases to Promote Viral Replication
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040706 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Various viruses alter nuclear pore complex (NPC) integrity to access the nuclear content favoring their replication. Alteration of the nuclear pore complex has been observed not only in viruses that replicate in the nucleus but also in viruses with a cytoplasmic replicative cycle. [...] Read more.
Various viruses alter nuclear pore complex (NPC) integrity to access the nuclear content favoring their replication. Alteration of the nuclear pore complex has been observed not only in viruses that replicate in the nucleus but also in viruses with a cytoplasmic replicative cycle. In this last case, the alteration of the NPC can reduce the transport of transcription factors involved in the immune response or mRNA maturation, or inhibit the transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, favoring the translation of viral mRNAs or allowing access to nuclear factors necessary for viral replication. In most cases, the alteration of the NPC is mediated by viral proteins, being the viral proteases, one of the most critical groups of viral proteins that regulate these nucleus–cytoplasmic transport changes. This review focuses on the description and discussion of the role of viral proteases in the modification of nucleus–cytoplasmic transport in viruses with cytoplasmic replicative cycles and its repercussions in viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Host Interplay for Viral Nuclear Import)
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