Special Issue "MicroRNAs and Other Small RNAs in Viral Infections"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kenneth W. Witwer
Website
Guest Editor
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
Interests: retroviruses; innate immunity; extracellular vesicles; extracellular RNA; neurodegenerative disease; substance use disorders
Dr. Sowmya V. Yelamanchili
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Interests: small RNAs; extracellular vesicles; drug addiction; chronic inflammation; stem cells and brain organoids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs are involved in regulating several disease processes, including viral infections and host response. For example, miRNAs may restrict viral replication by downregulating viral RNAs or cellular cofactors or enhance it by downmodulating host restriction factors. Small RNAs processed from host or viral RNAs may act to stabilize viral RNA structure or to enforce viral latency in the nucleus. Outside the cell, small RNAs from miRNAs to degradome products may betray the presence of viral infection or be shuttled between cells in extracellular vesicles. This Special Issue examines current knowledge and new developments in the study of small RNAs and viruses.

Dr. Kenneth W. Witwer
Dr. Sowmya V. Yelamanchili
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microRNA
  • small RNA
  • noncoding RNA
  • viruses
  • extracellular vesicles
  • extracellular RNA
  • viral RNA
  • restriction factors

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
MiR-202-5p Inhibits RIG-I-Dependent Innate Immune Responses to RGNNV Infection by Targeting TRIM25 to Mediate RIG-I Ubiquitination
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030261 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway is essential for inducing type I interferon (IFN) responses to viral infections. Meanwhile, it is also tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled immune responses. Numerous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for the regulation of immune [...] Read more.
The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway is essential for inducing type I interferon (IFN) responses to viral infections. Meanwhile, it is also tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled immune responses. Numerous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for the regulation of immune processes, however, the detailed molecular mechanism of miRNA regulating the RLRs signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. Here, our results showed that miR-202-5p was induced by red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection in zebrafish. Overexpression of miR-202-5p led to reduced expression of IFN 1 and its downstream antiviral genes, thus facilitating viral replication in vitro. In comparison, significantly enhanced levels of IFN 1 and antiviral genes and significantly low viral burden were observed in the miR-202-5p-/- zebrafish compared to wild type zebrafish. Subsequently, zebrafish tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (zbTRIM25) was identified as a target of miR-202-5p in both zebrafish and humans. Ectopic expression of miR-202-5p suppressed zbTRIM25-mediated RLRs signaling pathway. Furthermore, we showed that miR-202-5p inhibited zbTRIM25-mediated zbRIG-I ubiquitination and activation of IFN production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RGNNV-inducible miR-202-5p acts as a negative regulator of zbRIG-I-triggered antiviral innate response by targeting zbTRIM25. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for the evasion of the innate immune response controlled by RGNNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs and Other Small RNAs in Viral Infections)
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