Special Issue "Antiviral Agents to Influenza Virus"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 1070

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Xulin Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Interests: influenza virus infection; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); inhibitor; antiviral; immunomodulatory; drug-resistance; target; host factor; cytokine; chemokine; cytokine storm; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase; M2 ion channel; mechanism of action
Dr. Kornelia Hardes
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Giessen, Germany
Interests: antiviral activity; screening; natural resources; bacterial extracts; fungal extracts; antimicrobial peptides; toxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Volker Czudai-Matwich
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Giessen, Germany
Interests: influenza; molecular virology; cell culture; PCR; virus replication
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Influenza viruses are significant human respiratory viral pathogens that cause seasonal, endemic infections and periodic, unpredictable pandemics. For example, it was estimated that the 1918 pandemic killed almost 1% (0.95%) of the world population. Influenza viruses infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs, causing mild to severe illness and death. People 65 years and older, or with certain chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and children younger than five years are at high risks of developing serious flu-related complications.

Despite the availability of vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza virus infections impact morbidity and mortality and remain one of the most adverse factors of infectious disease.

Current anti-flu drugs in clinical use, including four neuraminidase inhibitors and one RNA polymerase inhibitor, can reduce viral loads and alleviate influenza symptoms if administrated early when symptoms first began to appear. However, antiviral drugs provide little benefit when administered more than two days after symptoms appear. In addition, drug resistance remains a significant challenge to the treatment of flu. Therefore, new anti-flu drugs targeting viral proteins, and having high drug-resistance barriers, or target host factors are urgently needed. In addition, immunomodulatory drugs that can reduce acute lung injury mediated by cytokine storm induced by influenza virus infections are most valuable for combinational therapies using antiviral drugs and immunomodulatory drugs developed explicitly for influenza.

The aims and scope of this Special Issue on “Antivirals to Influenza Virus Infections” include but are not limited to the following topics:

  1. Antivirals from natural products or synthetic molecules that can inhibit the replication of influenza viruses;
  2. Immunomodulatory agents from natural products or synthetic molecules that can inhibit innate immune responses to influenza virus infection or alleviate influenza caused lung injury;
  3. Efficacy studies and mechanism of action studies on new inhibitors with either antiviral activity or immunomodulatory activity against influenza virus infection;
  4. Identification of new antiviral targets that are virally encoded or host factors. The identification of immunomodulatory targets;
  5. Identification of cell signalling pathways that are essential for influenza virus replication or cytokine storm/acute respiratory distress syndrome;
  6. Drugs resistance study of FDA-approved drugs or newly developed drugs;
  7. Combination therapy using antiviral drugs or antiviral drugs with immunomodulatory drugs.

Prof. Dr. Xulin Chen
Dr. Kornelia Hardes
Dr. Volker Czudai-Matwich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • influenza virus infection
  • antiviral
  • immunomodulatory agent
  • virus replication
  • mechanism of action
  • innate immunity
  • type-I interferons
  • inflammatory cytokines
  • cytokine storm
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • pathogenesis
  • cell signalling

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
A Therapeutically Active Minibody Exhibits an Antiviral Activity in Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza-Infected Mice via Direct Hydrolysis of Viral RNAs
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051105 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Emerging Oseltamivir-resistant influenza strains pose a critical public health threat due to antigenic shifts and drifts. We report an innovative strategy for controlling influenza A infections by use of a novel minibody of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) showing intrinsic viral [...] Read more.
Emerging Oseltamivir-resistant influenza strains pose a critical public health threat due to antigenic shifts and drifts. We report an innovative strategy for controlling influenza A infections by use of a novel minibody of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) showing intrinsic viral RNA hydrolyzing activity, cell penetration activity, and epidermal cell penetration ability. In this study, we examined 3D8 scFv’s antiviral activity in vitro on three different H1N1 influenza strains, one Oseltamivir-resistant (A/Korea/2785/2009pdm) strain, and two Oseltamivir-sensitive (A/PuertoRico/8/1934 and A/X-31) strains. Interestingly, the 3D8 scFv directly digested viral RNAs in the ribonucleoprotein complex. scFv’s reduction of influenza viral RNA including viral genomic RNA, complementary RNA, and messenger RNA during influenza A infection cycles indicated that this minibody targets all types of viral RNAs during the early, intermediate, and late stages of the virus’s life cycle. Moreover, we further addressed the antiviral effects of 3D8 scFv to investigate in vivo clinical outcomes of influenza-infected mice. Using both prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of intranasal administered 3D8 scFv, we found that Oseltamivir-resistant H1N1-infected mice showed 90% (prophylactic effects) and 40% (therapeutic effects) increased survival rates, respectively, compared to the control group. The pathological signs of influenza A in the lung tissues, and quantitative analyses of the virus proliferations supported the antiviral activity of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D8 scFv has antiviral therapeutic potentials against a wide range of influenza A viruses via the direct viral RNA hydrolyzing activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Agents to Influenza Virus)
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