Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 14667

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
WHO/TDR (retired), Swiss TPH, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
Interests: epidemiology; medical parasitology; neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with special reference to schistosomiasis, diagnostics, chemotherapy, vaccinology, remote sensing, and other geospatial techniques
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Guest Editor
National Instititue of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025, China
Interests: schistosomiasis; trematode infections; malacology; spatial epidemiology; transmission modeling; strategy; One Health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Tropical Disease Research Center, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Khon Kaen University, 123 Mitraparp Road, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Interests: neglected tropical diseases; foodborne trematodes; liver flukes; opisthorchis viverrini; epidemiology; biology; pathogenesis; control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Trematoda class contains a large number of species that can infect humans, and many of the diseases they cause are listed as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 75 million people currently live in areas endemic for food-borne trematode (FBT) infections, which affect either the lungs, liver or intestines. This, together with the fact that that 40–50 million humans are infected by this kind of fluke, is testament to the fact that FBTs have changed from parasitic affections of poor people living in limited geographical areas to become serious, emerging diseases. This Special Issue focuses on human trematode infections in Asia, on the one hand including FBT infections caused by the genera Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Paragonimus, and Fasciola and on the other, schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi. The two latter are altogether different from the FBTs, as they neither are food-borne nor do they affect only specific, single organs. Conjoint with economic development and changing demography in Southeast Asia during the last 30 years, the geographical distribution of FBTs has expanded and the populations at risk have grown; meanwhile, for schistosomiasis, the end is in sight thanks to a worldwide call for its elimination. What all these trematode flukes have in common are complicated life cycles involving various snail species as intermediate hosts, an association with poverty, a limited number of drugs available for treatment, and lack of sufficiently sensitive diagnostic methods. We intend for this Special Issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease to cover recent progress in developing new therapeutics and diagnostic tools, as well as other interventions and surveillance approaches leading to the control and elimination of these insidious parasites.

Prof. Dr. Robert Bergquist
Prof. Dr. Xiao-Nong Zhou
Prof. Dr. Banchob Sripa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  •  clonorchis
  •  opisthorchis
  •  paragonimus
  •  fasciola
  •  japonicum
  •  mekongi
  •  asia
  •  epidemiology
  •  control
  •  mathematical modelling
  •  diagnostics
  •  chemotherapy
  •  snail control
  •  transmission
  •  zoonoses
  •  one health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
A Nomogram for Predicting Prognosis of Advanced Schistosomiasis japonica in Dongzhi County—A Case Study
by Zhong Hong, Shiqing Zhang, Lu Li, Yinlong Li, Ting Liu, Suying Guo, Xiaojuan Xu, Zhaoming Yang, Haoyi Zhang and Jing Xu
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010033 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Backgrounds: Advanced schistosomiasis is the late stage of schistosomiasis, seriously jeopardizing the quality of life or lifetime of infected people. This study aimed to develop a nomogram for predicting mortality of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, taking Dongzhi County of China as a [...] Read more.
Backgrounds: Advanced schistosomiasis is the late stage of schistosomiasis, seriously jeopardizing the quality of life or lifetime of infected people. This study aimed to develop a nomogram for predicting mortality of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, taking Dongzhi County of China as a case study. Method: Data of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were collected from Dongzhi Schistosomiasis Hospital from January 2019 to July 2022. Data of patients were randomly divided into a training set and validation set with a ratio of 7:3. Candidate variables, including survival outcomes, demographics, clinical features, laboratory examinations, and ultrasound examinations, were analyzed and selected by LASSO logistic regression for the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed by concordance index (C-index), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The calibration of the nomogram was evaluated by the calibration plots, while clinical benefit was evaluated by decision curve and clinical impact curve analysis. Results: A total of 628 patients were included in the final analysis. Atrophy of the right liver, creatinine, ascites level III, N-terminal procollagen III peptide, and high-density lipoprotein were selected as parameters for the nomogram model. The C-index, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the nomogram were 0.97 (95% [CI]: [0.95–0.99]), 0.78 (95% [CI]: [0.64–0.87]), 0.97 (95% [CI]: [0.94–0.98]), 0.78 (95% [CI]: [0.64–0.87]), 0.97 (95% [CI]: [0.94–0.98]) in the training set; and 0.98 (95% [CI]: [0.94–0.99]), 0.86 (95% [CI]: [0.64–0.96]), 0.97 (95% [CI]: [0.93–0.99]), 0.79 (95% [CI]: [0.57–0.92]), 0.98 (95% [CI]: [0.94–0.99]) in the validation set, respectively. The calibration curves showed that the model fitted well between the prediction and actual observation in both the training set and validation set. The decision and the clinical impact curves showed that the nomogram had good clinical use for discriminating patients with high risk of death. Conclusions: A nomogram was developed to predict prognosis of advanced schistosomiasis. It could guide clinical staff or policy makers to formulate intervention strategies or efficiently allocate resources against advanced schistosomiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective)
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15 pages, 5803 KiB  
Article
Jagged-1/Notch Pathway and Key Transient Markers Involved in Biliary Fibrosis during Opisthorchis felineus Infection
by Anna Kovner, Oxana Zaparina, Yaroslav Kapushchak, Galina Minkova, Viatcheslav Mordvinov and Maria Pakharukova
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(11), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7110364 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Chronic opisthorchiasis associated with Opisthorchis felineus infection is accompanied by severe fibrotic complications. It is of high practical significance to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis in chronic infection dynamics. The goal of the study is to investigate the temporal profile of key [...] Read more.
Chronic opisthorchiasis associated with Opisthorchis felineus infection is accompanied by severe fibrotic complications. It is of high practical significance to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis in chronic infection dynamics. The goal of the study is to investigate the temporal profile of key markers and the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway in the implementation of fibrosis in a chronic O. felineus infection. For the first time, using histological methods and real-time PCR analysis, we demonstrated the activation of the Jagged1/Notch pathway in liver fibrogenesis, including the activation of the Hes1 and Hey1 target genes during experimental opisthorchiasis in Mesocricetus auratus. Cluster analysis followed by regression analysis of key markers during the infection showed that Jagged1 and Mmp9have the greatest contribution to the development of cholangiofibrosis and periductal fibrosis. Moreover, we detected a significant increase in the number of Jagged1-positive cells in the liver of chronic opisthorchiasis patients compared to that of the control group without infection. The results of the study are extremely informative both in terms of investigation both diverse fibrosis mechanisms as well as potential targets in complex antihelmintic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective)
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9 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Diagnosing Human Fascioliasis Using ELISA Immunoassays at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Hanoi: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Huong Nguyen Thu, Veronique Dermauw, Tho Tran Huy, Clémentine Roucher, Pierre Dorny, Hoai Nguyen Thi, Kien Hoang Trung, Thang Dao Van, Binh Do Nhu and Thu Nguyen Kim
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050076 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Infections with the zoonotic liver flukes Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica may result in severe disease in humans. In Vietnam, an emergence of fascioliasis cases has been observed from the late 1990s onwards. Various diagnostic tools are used in the country, but the [...] Read more.
Infections with the zoonotic liver flukes Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica may result in severe disease in humans. In Vietnam, an emergence of fascioliasis cases has been observed from the late 1990s onwards. Various diagnostic tools are used in the country, but the agreement between these tools has not been critically evaluated. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation and diagnostic outcomes in fascioliasis patients in Vietnam. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on the medical records of a group of 145 patients diagnosed with fascioliasis at a tertiary referral hospital in Hanoi. Based on the review, sociodemographic background and clinical presentation were recorded. These patients all received standard routine serologic tests, including internal antibody (Ab)-ELISA, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial coproantigen (cAg)-ELISA. The majority of cases were between 30 and 59 years old (68.3%), and about half of them were male (51.0%). Upper quadrant and epigastric pain were the most commonly reported symptoms (61.4% and 35.2%, respectively). All but one patient had liver lesions upon ultrasound examination (99.3%), and eosinophilia was present in most of the patients (89.7%). A high number of patients were positive in the in-house and the commercial Ab-ELISA (95.9% and 87.4%, respectively), yet only a slight agreement was observed between the two tests (kappa coefficient, 0.06). A further 47.4% of cases were positive for the commercial cAg-ELISA, whereas stool microscopy indicated the presence of Fasciola spp. eggs in 25.7% of patients. The current study emphasizes the challenges related to the diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective)

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14 pages, 1950 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Global Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Leslie Faye T. Cando, Glenmarie Angelica S. Perias, Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Micah D. Dispo, Jeremy A. Ceriales, Mark John G. Girasol, Lydia R. Leonardo and Ian Kim B. Tabios
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(11), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7110354 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting 40 million women of childbearing age worldwide. Its global disease prevalence among pregnant women is still unknown. This meta-analysis determined the pooled prevalence of schistosomiasis among pregnant women globally. Additionally, this study also determined the pooled [...] Read more.
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting 40 million women of childbearing age worldwide. Its global disease prevalence among pregnant women is still unknown. This meta-analysis determined the pooled prevalence of schistosomiasis among pregnant women globally. Additionally, this study also determined the pooled prevalence based on infection intensity based on eggs per gram. Observational studies on the prevalence of schistosomiasis among pregnant patients were obtained from Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL from January 2001 until August 2020. A review of titles and abstracts was done independently by six reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for case–control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies. A total of 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. The pooled prevalence of S. haematobium was 13.44 (CI: 8.90–19.80) per 100 observations, while the pooled prevalence of S. mansoni was 12.18 (CI: 4.47–29.12) per 100 observations. The prevalence of S. japonicum infection in one study was 53.54 (CI: 43.23–63.62) per 100 observations. Our results showed a prevailing health problem of schistosomiasis during pregnancy in various countries worldwide. This strengthens the need to conduct more schistosomiasis research, prevention, and control programs in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective)
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12 pages, 3226 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Livestock and Humans in Pakistan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Muhammad Rizwan, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Hajra Manahil, Sobia Yasmeen, Muhammad Jabbar, Shumaila Irum, Sami Simsek, Samia Wasif, Tahir Mahmood, Haroon Ahmed and Jianping Cao
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(7), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7070126 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4051
Abstract
Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection that affects both livestock and humans. Understanding the distribution of Fasciola spp. can help the development of preventive measures to control fascioliasis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the status of fascioliasis among livestock and humans [...] Read more.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection that affects both livestock and humans. Understanding the distribution of Fasciola spp. can help the development of preventive measures to control fascioliasis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the status of fascioliasis among livestock and humans in Pakistan between 2000 and 2020. Based on the selection criteria, 25 articles were selected from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. This review included 76,099 animals, including 13,738 that were positive for fascioliasis. The overall prevalence was 18.1%; it was 0.3% in humans and 20.1% in livestock. Among animal hosts, the prevalence was highest in sheep (53.5%), followed by the goats (44.9%), cows (21.3%), buffaloes (16.8%), cattle (12.7%), and humans (0.3%). Sindh had the highest prevalence at 42.7%, followed by Baluchistan (25.2%), Punjab (17.7%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (10.7%), and Islamabad capital territory (1.5%). In the Punjab province, sheep had the highest prevalence (65.7%); in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it was buffalo (15.9%); and in Baluchistan, it was cows (28.5%). The prevalence of Fasciola spp. was higher in Sindh and Baluchistan than in the other provinces. The presented results are essential for developing preventive approaches for the management of human health and minimizing economic loss in the livestock industry in Pakistan. Preventive-curative treatments two times a year followed by a prophylactic treatment at the end of the dry season are crucial throughout the areas of Pakistan that serve as hotspots for infection by Fasciola sp. For humans, regular, prioritized surveys must be performed for high-risk populations so that the real situation can be assessed and addressed in a timely manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trematode Infections in the Asian Perspective)
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