Toxics 2022, 10(12), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120760
New approach methodologies (NAMs) are emerging chemical safety assessment tools consisting of in vitro and in silico (computational) methodologies intended to reduce, refine, or replace (3R) various in vivo animal testing methods traditionally used for risk assessment. Significant progress has been made toward the adoption of NAMs for human health and environmental toxicity assessment. However, additional efforts are needed to expand their development and their use in regulatory decision making. A virtual symposium was held during the 2021 Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA) Smoke Science and Product Technology (SSPT) conference (titled “Advancing New Alternative Methods for Tobacco Harm Reduction”), with the goals of introducing the concepts and potential application of NAMs in the evaluation of potentially reduced-risk (PRR) tobacco products. At the symposium, experts from regulatory agencies, research organizations, and NGOs shared insights on the status of available tools, strengths, limitations, and opportunities in the application of NAMs using case examples from safety assessments of chemicals and tobacco products. Following seven presentations providing background and application of NAMs, a discussion was held where the presenters and audience discussed the outlook for extending the NAMs toxicological applications for tobacco products. The symposium, endorsed by the CORESTA In Vitro Tox Subgroup, Biomarker Subgroup, and NextG Tox Task Force, illustrated common ground and interest in science-based engagement across the scientific community and stakeholders in support of tobacco regulatory science. Highlights of the symposium are summarized in this paper.
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Toxics 2020, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030068
This report summarizes the outcome of a workshop held in Mysuru, India in January 2020 addressing the adverse health effects of exposure to biomass smoke (BMS). The aim of the workshop was to identify uncertainties and gaps in knowledge and possible methods to address them in the Mysuru study on Determinants of Health in Rural Adults (MUDHRA) cohort. Specific aims were to discuss the possibility to improve and introduce new screening methods for exposure and effect, logistic limitations and other potential obstacles, and plausible strategies to overcome these in future studies. Field visits were included in the workshop prior to discussing these issues. The workshop concluded that multi-disciplinary approaches to perform: (a) indoor and personalized exposure assessment; (b) clinical and epidemiological field studies among children, adolescents, and adults; (c) controlled exposure experiments using physiologically relevant in vitro and in vivo models to understand molecular patho-mechanisms are warranted to dissect BMS-induced adverse health effects. It was perceived that assessment of dietary exposure (like phytochemical index) may serve as an important indicator for understanding potential protective mechanisms. Well trained field teams and close collaboration with the participating hospital were identified as the key requirements to successfully carry out the study objectives.
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