Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future

A special issue of Signals (ISSN 2624-6120).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 36206

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
Interests: 5G; 6G wireless systems and networks; terahertz technology; space technology; the Internet of Things; artificial intelligence
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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
Interests: indoor localization; deep learning; machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of Things (IoT), since it was first conceptualized in the early 1980s, has continually drawn intense attention and shaped our world. Thanks to the rapid advancements in wireless communication and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, particularly in recent years, IoT technologies and ecosystems have also witnessed enormously rapid evolution; consequently, the massive deployment has altered the present life in our cities and across the planet to a great extent. For example, IoT-based smart home automation, smart agriculture and smart oceans, satellites, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted IoT networks have been gradually developed and deployed from theory to reality. 

However, our civilization continues to envision and expect further transformation of our current lifestyle and society. To fulfill these expectations, some future concerns may be worth discussing first. For example, how will IoT technologies be deployed as more energy- and cost-efficient in order to connect the unconnected? How can Industrial IoT (IIoT) be better served as the catalyst of Industry 4.0?  How will IoT technologies accelerate, reform, and reshape education, health care, home entertainment, and even the metaverse. With a more daring but still realistic vision based on the unprecedented advancement of space technology and incremental investment in the space industry, IoT technologies can be applied to more application scenarios beyond our current planet of residence, since it is expected that scientists will "make humans a multiplanetary species" (quoting Mr. Elon Musk).

In this Special Issue, we provide a platform to authors from various research backgrounds and areas to share and exchange extraordinary thoughts and address future challenges such as advanced signal processing and network design techniques in order to enable more high-performance scenarios of the application of IoT technologies. Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Critical underlying signal processing, information, and communication technologies to enable future IoT systems and networks;
  • Critical theories, algorithms, and methods for Internet of Things in smart homes, smart factories, smart agriculture, smart cities, and smart planet;
  • Fusion of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) with the Internet of Things and AI/ML-enabled signal processing and analysis;
  • Emerging system-on-chip (SoC) and hardware designs for IoT systems and signal processing: trends and challenges;
  • Theories, algorithms, and methods in Integrated Space–Air–Sea–Ground networks for IoT networks;
  • Investigation and analysis of network design and signal processing in enabling Internet of Satellites/Spacecraft;
  • Cloud/fog/edge-based computing enabled IoT data solutions and signal processing;
  • Underlying signal processing and machine learning techniques for Blockchain-enabled Internet of Things;
  • Critical AI and signal processing techniques in cybersecurity technologies for secure IoT devices and networks;
  • Design and deployment of practical IoT systems and networks for vertical application scenarios with a focus on signal processing techniques;
  • Signal processing and AI techniques in Internet of Medical Things, IoT for smart health, and emotional care;
  • Enabling Metaverse, persistent online 3-D virtual environments, through IoT-oriented signal processing technologies;
  • Design and analysis of signal processing techniques in the FinTech cybersecurity empowered by the secure IoT technologies;
  • Energy harvesting and wireless power transfer technologies for massive IoT networks and signals.

Submit your paper and select the Journal Signals and the Special Issue "Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future" via the MDPI submission system. Papers will be published on a rolling basis and we will be pleased to receive your submission once you have finished it.

Dr. Yiming Huo
Dr. Minh Tu Hoang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Signals is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • signal processing
  • artificial intelligence (AI)
  • theories, algorithm, and methods
  • Industry 4.0
  • smart cities
  • smart planet
  • wireless communications
  • cybersecurity
  • blockchain
  • satellite
  • SoC
  • metaverse
  • fintech

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 4341 KiB  
Article
Emergency Communication System Based on Wireless LPWAN and SD-WAN Technologies: A Hybrid Approach
by Vasileios Cheimaras, Nikolaos Peladarinos, Nikolaos Monios, Spyridon Daousis, Spyridon Papagiakoumos, Panagiotis Papageorgas and Dimitrios Piromalis
Signals 2023, 4(2), 315-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals4020017 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Emergency Communication Systems (ECS) are network-based systems that may enable people to exchange information during crises and physical disasters when basic communication options have collapsed. They may be used to restore communication in off-grid areas or even when normal telecommunication networks have failed. [...] Read more.
Emergency Communication Systems (ECS) are network-based systems that may enable people to exchange information during crises and physical disasters when basic communication options have collapsed. They may be used to restore communication in off-grid areas or even when normal telecommunication networks have failed. These systems may use technologies such as Low-Power Wide-Area(LPWAN) and Software-Defined Wide Area Networks (SD-WAN), which can be specialized as software applications and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. In this article, we present a comprehensive discussion of the existing ECS use cases and current research directions regarding the use of unconventional and hybrid methods for establishing communication between a specific site and the outside world. The ECS system proposed and simulated in this article consists of an autonomous wireless 4G/LTE base station and a LoRa network utilizing a hybrid IoT communication platform combining LPWAN and SD-WAN technologies. The LoRa-based wireless network was simulated using Network Simulator 3 (NS3), referring basically to firm and sufficient data transfer between an appropriate gateway and LP-WAN sensor nodes to provide trustworthy communications. The proposed scheme provided efficient data transfer posing low data losses by optimizing the installation of the gateway within the premises, while the SD-WAN scheme that was simulated using the MATLAB simulator and LTE Toolbox in conjunction with an ADALM PLUTO SDR device proved to be an outstanding alternative communication solution as well. Its performance was measured after recombining all received data blocks, leading to a beneficial proposal to researchers and practitioners regarding the benefits of using an on-premises IoT communication platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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23 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Active Access-Point Configuration Algorithm under Channel Bonding to Dual IEEE 802.11n and 11ac Interfaces in an Elastic WLAN System for IoT Applications
by Sujan Chandra Roy, Nobuo Funabiki, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Bin Wu, Minoru Kuribayashi and Wen-Chung Kao
Signals 2023, 4(2), 274-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals4020015 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Currently, Internet of Things (IoT) has become common in various applications, including smart factories, smart cities, and smart homes. In them, wireless local-area networks (WLANs) are widely used due to their high-speed data transfer, flexible coverage ranges, and low costs. To enhance the [...] Read more.
Currently, Internet of Things (IoT) has become common in various applications, including smart factories, smart cities, and smart homes. In them, wireless local-area networks (WLANs) are widely used due to their high-speed data transfer, flexible coverage ranges, and low costs. To enhance the performance, the WLAN configuration should be optimized in dense WLAN environments where multiple access points (APs) and hosts exist. Previously, we have studied the active AP configuration algorithm for dual interfaces using IEEE802.11n and 11ac protocols at each AP under non-channel bonding (non-CB). In this paper, we study the algorithm considering the channel bonding (CB) to enhance its capacity by bonding two channels together. To improve the throughput estimation accuracy of the algorithm, the reduction factor is introduced at contending hosts for the same AP. For evaluations, we conducted extensive experiments using the WIMENT simulator and the testbed system using Raspberry Pi 4B APs. The results show that the estimated throughput is well matched with the measured one, and the proposal achieves the higher throughput with a smaller number of active APs than the previous configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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40 pages, 29963 KiB  
Article
Internet of Spacecraft for Multi-Planetary Defense and Prosperity
by Yiming Huo
Signals 2022, 3(3), 428-467; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3030026 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8237
Abstract
Recent years have seen unprecedentedly fast-growing prosperity in the commercial space industry. Several privately funded aerospace manufacturers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Blue Origin have transformed what we used to know about this capital-intense industry and gradually reshaped the future [...] Read more.
Recent years have seen unprecedentedly fast-growing prosperity in the commercial space industry. Several privately funded aerospace manufacturers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Blue Origin have transformed what we used to know about this capital-intense industry and gradually reshaped the future of human civilization. As private spaceflight and multi-planetary immigration gradually become realities from science fiction (sci-fi) and theory, both opportunities and challenges will be presented. In this article, we first review the progress in space exploration and the underlying space technologies. Next, we revisit the K-Pg extinction event and the Chelyabinsk event and predict extra-terrestrialization, terraformation, and planetary defense, including the emerging near-Earth object (NEO) observation and NEO impact avoidance technologies and strategies. Furthermore, a framework for the Solar Communication and Defense Networks (SCADN) with advanced algorithms and high efficacy is proposed to enable an Internet of distributed deep-space sensing, communications, and defense to cope with disastrous incidents such as asteroid/comet impacts. Furthermore, perspectives on the legislation, management, and supervision of founding the proposed SCADN are also discussed in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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15 pages, 16284 KiB  
Article
Antenna Boosters versus Flexible Printed Circuit Antennas for IoT Devices
by Jaume Anguera, Alejandro Fernández, Carles Puente, Aurora Andújar and Jaap Groot
Signals 2022, 3(2), 326-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3020021 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
Antennas should be small enough to fit in the limited space of IoT devices and, at the same time, with multi-band operation across several bands as well as ensure stability when embedded in a device. In this regard, two different technologies are compared: [...] Read more.
Antennas should be small enough to fit in the limited space of IoT devices and, at the same time, with multi-band operation across several bands as well as ensure stability when embedded in a device. In this regard, two different technologies are compared: antenna booster and flexible printed circuit antenna. A comparison is addressed from measured results in terms of efficiency, concluding that despite the antenna booster is more than fifty times smaller in area, it provides better efficiency across the frequency range of 698–960 MHz and 1710–2690 MHz across three different printed circuit boards (PCB): a big PCB of 131 mm × 60 mm, a medium PCB of 95 mm × 42 mm, and a small PCB of 65 mm × 42 mm. Moreover, the flexible printed antenna depends on the mounting process, whereas the antenna booster does not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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26 pages, 8711 KiB  
Article
Skyfall: Signal Fusion from a Smartphone Falling from the Stratosphere
by Milton A. Garcés, Daniel Bowman, Cleat Zeiler, Anthony Christe, Tyler Yoshiyama, Brian Williams, Meritxell Colet, Samuel Takazawa and Sarah Popenhagen
Signals 2022, 3(2), 209-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3020014 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
A smartphone plummeted from a stratospheric height of 36 km, providing a near-real-time record of its rapid descent and ground impact. An app recorded and streamed useful internal multi-sensor data at high sample rates. Signal fusion with external and internal sensor systems permitted [...] Read more.
A smartphone plummeted from a stratospheric height of 36 km, providing a near-real-time record of its rapid descent and ground impact. An app recorded and streamed useful internal multi-sensor data at high sample rates. Signal fusion with external and internal sensor systems permitted a more detailed reconstruction of the Skyfall chronology, including its descent speed, rotation rate, and impact deceleration. Our results reinforce the potential of smartphones as an agile and versatile geophysical data collection system for environmental and disaster monitoring IoT applications. We discuss mobile environmental sensing capabilities and present a flexible data model to record and stream signals of interest. The Skyfall case study can be used as a guide to smartphone signal processing methods that are transportable to other hardware platforms and operating systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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20 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
XBeats: A Real-Time Electrocardiogram Monitoring and Analysis System
by Ahmed Badr, Abeer Badawi, Abdulmonem Rashwan and Khalid Elgazzar
Signals 2022, 3(2), 189-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3020013 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3602
Abstract
This work presents XBeats, a novel platform for real-time electrocardiogram monitoring and analysis that uses edge computing and machine learning for early anomaly detection. The platform encompasses a data acquisition ECG patch with 12 leads to collect heart signals, perform on-chip processing, and [...] Read more.
This work presents XBeats, a novel platform for real-time electrocardiogram monitoring and analysis that uses edge computing and machine learning for early anomaly detection. The platform encompasses a data acquisition ECG patch with 12 leads to collect heart signals, perform on-chip processing, and transmit the data to healthcare providers in real-time for further analysis. The ECG patch provides a dynamically configurable selection of the active ECG leads that could be transmitted to the backend monitoring system. The selection ranges from a single ECG lead to a complete 12-lead ECG testing configuration. XBeats implements a lightweight binary classifier for early anomaly detection to reduce the time to action should abnormal heart conditions occur. This initial detection phase is performed on the edge (i.e., the device paired with the patch) and alerts can be configured to notify designated healthcare providers. Further deep analysis can be performed on the full fidelity 12-lead data sent to the backend. A fully functional prototype of the XBeats has been implemented to demonstrate the feasibly and usability of the proposed system. Performance evaluation shows that XBeats can achieve up to 95.30% detection accuracy for abnormal conditions, while maintaining a high data acquisition rate of up to 441 samples per second. Moreover, the analytical results of the energy consumption profile show that the ECG patch provides up to 37 h of continuous 12-lead ECG streaming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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18 pages, 23257 KiB  
Article
A Novel Intelligent IoT System for Improving the Safety and Planning of Air Cargo Operations
by Christos Spandonidis, Elias Sedikos, Fotis Giannopoulos, Areti Petsa, Panayiotis Theodoropoulos, Kostas Chatzis and Nektarios Galiatsatos
Signals 2022, 3(1), 95-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3010008 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Being the main pillar in the context of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things (IoT) leads evolution towards a smarter and safer planet. Being human-centered, rather than machine-centered, as was the case of wireless sensor networks used in the industry for decades, the [...] Read more.
Being the main pillar in the context of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things (IoT) leads evolution towards a smarter and safer planet. Being human-centered, rather than machine-centered, as was the case of wireless sensor networks used in the industry for decades, the IoT may enhance human intelligence with situational awareness, early warning, and decision support tools. Focusing on air cargo transportation, the “INTELLICONT” project presented a novel solution capable of improving critical air cargo challenges such as the reduction of total aircraft weight, detection and suppression of smoke and/or fire in a container, elimination of permanent moving and locking hardware, loading and unloading logistics enhancement and maintenance. In the present work, the IoT-based monitoring and control system for intelligent aircraft cargo containers is presented from a hardware perspective. The system is based on low-cost, low-energy sensors that are integrated into the container, can track its status, and detect critical events, such as fire/smoke, impact, and accidental misuse. The focus has been given to the design and development of a system capable of providing better and safer control of the aircraft cargo during the loading/unloading operations and the flight. It is shown that the system could provide a breakthrough in the state of the art of current cargo container technology and aircraft cargo operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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9 pages, 4134 KiB  
Article
5G/B5G Internet of Things MIMO Antenna Design
by Muhammad Ikram
Signals 2022, 3(1), 29-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3010003 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
The current and future wireless communication systems, WiFi, fourth generation (4G), fifth generation (5G), Beyond5G, and sixth generation (6G), are mixtures of many frequency spectrums. Thus, multi-functional common or shared aperture antenna modules, which operate at multiband frequency spectrums, are very desirable. This [...] Read more.
The current and future wireless communication systems, WiFi, fourth generation (4G), fifth generation (5G), Beyond5G, and sixth generation (6G), are mixtures of many frequency spectrums. Thus, multi-functional common or shared aperture antenna modules, which operate at multiband frequency spectrums, are very desirable. This paper presents a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design for the 5G/B5G Internet of Things (IoT). The proposed MIMO antenna is designed to operate at multiple bands, i.e., at 3.5 GHz, 3.6 GHz, and 3.7 GHz microwave Sub-6 GHz and 28 GHz mm-wave bands, by employing a single radiating aperture, which is based on a tapered slot antenna. As a proof of concept, multiple tapered slots are placed on the corner of the proposed prototype. With this configuration, multiple directive beams pointing in different directions have been achieved at both bands, which in turn provide uncorrelated channels in MIMO communication. A 3.5 dBi realized gain at 3.6 GHz and an 8 dBi realized gain at 28 GHz are achieved, showing that the proposed design is a suitable candidate for multiple wireless communication standards at Sub-6 GHz and mm-wave bands. The final MIMO structure is printed using PCB technology with an overall size of 120 × 60 × 10 mm3, which matches the dimensions of a modern mobile phone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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10 pages, 2647 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Chirp Signal Design for Improved Long-Range (LoRa) Communications
by Md. Noor-A-Rahim, M. Omar Khyam, Apel Mahmud, Xinde Li, Dirk Pesch and H. Vincent Poor
Signals 2022, 3(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals3010001 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
Long-range (LoRa) communication has attracted much attention recently due to its utility for many Internet of Things applications. However, one of the key problems of LoRa technology is that it is vulnerable to noise/interference due to the use of only up-chirp signals during [...] Read more.
Long-range (LoRa) communication has attracted much attention recently due to its utility for many Internet of Things applications. However, one of the key problems of LoRa technology is that it is vulnerable to noise/interference due to the use of only up-chirp signals during modulation. In this paper, to solve this problem, unlike the conventional LoRa modulation scheme, we propose a modulation scheme for LoRa communication based on joint up- and down-chirps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based demodulation scheme is devised to detect modulated symbols. To further improve the demodulation performance, a hybrid demodulation scheme, comprised of FFT- and correlation-based demodulation, is also proposed. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated through extensive simulation results. Compared to the conventional LoRa modulation scheme, we show that the proposed scheme exhibits over 3 dB performance gain at a bit error rate of 104. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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Review

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21 pages, 11269 KiB  
Review
Exploitation Techniques of IoST Vulnerabilities in Air-Gapped Networks and Security Measures—A Systematic Review
by Razi Hamada and Ievgeniia Kuzminykh
Signals 2023, 4(4), 687-707; https://doi.org/10.3390/signals4040038 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
IP cameras and digital video recorders, as part of the Internet of Surveillance Things (IoST) technology, can sometimes allow unauthenticated access to the video feed or management dashboard. These vulnerabilities may result from weak APIs, misconfigurations, or hidden firmware backdoors. What is particularly [...] Read more.
IP cameras and digital video recorders, as part of the Internet of Surveillance Things (IoST) technology, can sometimes allow unauthenticated access to the video feed or management dashboard. These vulnerabilities may result from weak APIs, misconfigurations, or hidden firmware backdoors. What is particularly concerning is that these vulnerabilities can stay unnoticed for extended periods, spanning weeks, months, or even years, until a malicious attacker decides to exploit them. The response actions in case of identifying the vulnerability, such as updating software and firmware for millions of IoST devices, might be challenging and time-consuming. Implementing an air-gapped video surveillance network, which is isolated from the internet and external access, can reduce the cybersecurity threats associated with internet-connected IoST devices. However, such networks can also be susceptible to other threats and attacks, which need to be explored and analyzed. In this work, we perform a systematic literature review on the current state of research and use cases related to compromising and protecting cameras in logical and physical air-gapped networks. We provide a network diagram for each mode of exploitation, discuss the vulnerabilities that could result in a successful attack, demonstrate the potential impacts on organizations in the event of IoST compromise, and outline the security measures and mechanisms that can be deployed to mitigate these security risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart Planet: Present and Future)
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