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Special Issue "Bluetooth Low Energy: Advances and Applications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Carles Gomez
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Network Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08860 Castelldefels, Spain
Interests: low-power wireless technologies; IoT; WSNs; BLE; LPWAN; 6LoWPAN; 6Lo; IP-based protocols for constrained-node networks
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bluetooth low energy (BLE) was first specified in 2010. Since then, its popularity has not ceased to increase. In fact, BLE has become the dominant low-power wireless technology in a variety of consumer electronics devices, including the smartphone. The latter is crucially important, as it brings widespread presence to BLE. This feature of BLE, along with its suitability for simple, energy-constrained devices (e.g., battery-enabled sensors), allows positioning BLE as a fundamental enabler of networking paradigms such as wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things.

BLE technology and BLE-based networking have also expanded in parallel to their success. The panoply of BLE features, options, and mechanisms has significantly increased in the last few years. Significant additions to the BLE universe include several Bluetooth specification updates (the latest being Bluetooth 5 and Bluetooth 5.1), IPv6 support for BLE devices, and many initiatives for enabling BLE mesh networks.

BLE applications can be found in a wide range of domains, e.g., smart home, smart cities, smart health, smart agriculture, or Industry 4.0. BLE is enabling the interaction between humans and smart objects, as well as between smart objects themselves. BLE has also been leveraged for innovative location-based applications, opportunistic data collection, crowd-sensing, etc.

Remarkably, BLE is also playing a fundamental role in the context of combatting COVID-19. BLE-enabled sensors are being used in hospitals to remotely collect vital parameter readings (e.g. temperature, blood pressure, etc.), minimizing the risk of infection for medical personnel. Furthermore, the widespread presence of BLE in smartphones is crucial to enable contact tracing applications being developed and used worldwide.

This Special Issue aims at collecting high quality research papers and review articles focusing on recent advances in BLE. Original, high-quality contributions that have not been published before and are not currently under review by other journals or conferences are sought.

Dr. Carles Gomez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Potential topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Performance evaluation (e.g., mathematical analysis, simulation and/or experimentation) of BLE networks
  • BLE version-oriented studies (Bluetooth 4.x, Bluetooth 5, Bluetooth 5.1)
  • Internet connectivity of BLE devices: 6LoWPAN/6Lo, gateway-based approaches, etc.
  • BLE mesh networking standardization efforts: Bluetooth Mesh (Bluetooth SIG), IPv6 mesh over BLE (IETF), etc.
  • Novel approaches to BLE mesh networks
  • Coexistence of BLE with other wireless technologies
  • BLE beacons
  • BLE-based localization
  • BLE-based opportunistic sensor data collection
  • Innovative applications of BLE in smart home, smart cities, smart transportation, smart agriculture, smart health, Industry 4.0, etc.
  • Applications of BLE for combatting COVID-19: parameter monitoring, contact tracing, etc.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Energy Modeling of Neighbor Discovery in Bluetooth Low Energy Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4997; - 16 Nov 2019
Given that current Internet of Things (IoT) applications employ many different sensors to provide information, a large number of the Bluetooth low energy (BLE) devices will be developed for IoT systems. Developing low-power and low-cost BLE advertisers is one of most challenging tasks [...] Read more.
Given that current Internet of Things (IoT) applications employ many different sensors to provide information, a large number of the Bluetooth low energy (BLE) devices will be developed for IoT systems. Developing low-power and low-cost BLE advertisers is one of most challenging tasks for supporting the neighbor discovery process (NDP) of such a large number of BLE devices. Since the parameter setting is essential to achieve the required performance for the NDP, an energy model of neighbor discovery in BLE networks can provide beneficial guidance when determining some significant parameter metrics, such as the advertising interval, scan interval, and scan window. In this paper, we propose a new analytical model to characterize the energy consumption using all possible parameter settings during the NDP in BLE networks. In this model, the energy consumption is derived based on the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) for an advertising event and a scanning event during the BLE NDP. In addition, a real testbed is set up to measure the energy consumption. The measurement and experimental results reveal the relationship between the average energy consumption and the key parameters. On the basis of this model, beneficial guidelines for BLE network configuration are presented to help choose the proper parameters to optimize the power consumption for a given IoT application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bluetooth Low Energy: Advances and Applications)
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