500 Years of Christianity in the Philippines: Impact on Asia and the World

A special issue of Religions (ISSN 2077-1444).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2022) | Viewed by 33394

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Theology and Religious Education Department, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
Interests: intercultural theology; empirical theology; psychology of religion; spirituality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue seeks to re-examine the intersection between culture, mission, history, and theology in the worldwide Christian movement. Theologians, missiologists, historians, religious educators, and scholars are invited to critically examine and reflect upon the role of religion in the life, culture, history, and daily experiences of people. Since Christian faith has been a cross-cultural and diverse religion with multiple expressions, these points of convergence are excellent opportunities for discussion among scholars. As the Christian faith continues to journey into new cultural settings, it is worth exploring the paths it has traversed and the direction it is headed.

Additionally, this Special Issue revisits the role of the Christian faith in the Philippines. The predominantly Catholic country will celebrate its 500 years of Christianity in 2021. As such, it will be a valuable locus of inquiry on the interplay of Christian faith and culture and the impact of Christianity on Asia and the world. This Special Issue hopes to significantly contribute to the growing body of literature in world Christianity, missiology, and theology.

Reflecting on the topics, high-quality papers on the following sub-themes are also welcome:

  • Christian Communities and Mission;
  • Indigenous, Environment, and Mission;
  • Religious Education, Education for the Native;
  • Education, Technology, Science;
  • Spirituality, Charismatic and Religious Expressions;
  • Christian Leadership;
  • Gender and Mission;
  • Asian Theology and Contextual Theology;
  • Biblical Studies and Hermeneutics;
  • Interreligious Studies, Ecumenism, and Global Cooperation;
  • Medical Mission and Global Crisis;
  • Mission in Christian Literature and Archives.

Dr. Fides del Castillo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Christian world
  • evangelization
  • inculturation
  • culture
  • 500 years of Christianity in the Philippines

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 239 KiB  
Article
Gamay at Hiyang: Reconstructing Fray Juan de Oliver’s Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en Idioma Tagalog as a Catechetical Paradigm
by Arvin Dineros Eballo
Religions 2022, 13(9), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13090832 - 6 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
During the American annexation of the Philippines, a classic English catechism designed in a question-and-answer format known as the Baltimore catechism became popular. Apparently, that said catechism served as the standard Catholic catechetical text (lingua franca) in the country from 1900 [...] Read more.
During the American annexation of the Philippines, a classic English catechism designed in a question-and-answer format known as the Baltimore catechism became popular. Apparently, that said catechism served as the standard Catholic catechetical text (lingua franca) in the country from 1900 to the late 1960s. There is no single best method and approach in the ministry of catechesis. However, cultural appreciation of the people is essential to realize purposeful and meaningful catechesis. In the celebration of the Quincentenario of the arrival of Catholicism in the Philippines, it is a fitting tribute to recognize Fray Juan de Oliver, O.F.M. and revisit his Declaracion de la Doctrina Christian en Idioma Tagalog which he used from 1582 to 1591 when he was tasked to evangelize the locals of Balayan, Batangas during the early stages of the Catholic propagation in Luzon. The 188-page catechism attributed to de Oliver was all written in Tagalog which meant that he persevered in learning the local language to impart the Catholic teachings strikingly to the natives. Through historical and textual analysis, the proponent intends to reconstruct de Oliver’s adaptable and comfortable (gamay) methods and approaches of catechizing in a suitable way (hiyang) to the worldview, language, and culture of the locals. Likewise, de Oliver’s catechetical pedagogy may also serve as a pedagogical paradigm for priests, religious educators, and catechists in conducting contextualized catechesis. Full article
17 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Marina Pak (c. 1572–1636): An Attempted Reconstruction of Her Years in the Philippines
by Hayoung Wong
Religions 2022, 13(7), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13070621 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Marina Pak (c. 1572–1636) entered Christian history as Korea’s first significantly cloistered individual, but researchers know almost nothing about her twenty-two years in the Philippines because of the scarce primary source testimonies. On the other hand, through interdisciplinary reflections on Marina’s pluralistic religious [...] Read more.
Marina Pak (c. 1572–1636) entered Christian history as Korea’s first significantly cloistered individual, but researchers know almost nothing about her twenty-two years in the Philippines because of the scarce primary source testimonies. On the other hand, through interdisciplinary reflections on Marina’s pluralistic religious background, the influence of the Japanese state, the significance of the Pasig River, and her relationship in the Philippines with Miyako no Bikuni foundress Naitō Julia (c. 1566–1627), one can reconstruct the steps that Marina might have undertaken to navigate a Christian vocation in a foreign land. This article explores the ways in which Marina might have tried to reconcile three different cultural factors (the Korean identity of her birth, Japanese influences arising from her involuntary sojourn in Japan, and the Filipino culture of her final destination), and despite the tentative nature of the study’s conclusions, these findings may offer paths for future scholars to follow. Full article
14 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Symbolism and Expression of Performing Panata in the Philippines: An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno of Quiapo
by Mark Inigo Macam Tallara
Religions 2022, 13(4), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13040272 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 7119
Abstract
This paper is about Catholicism in the Philippines, highlighting the events and objects of the popular devotion to the Black Christ Nazarene of Manila, popularly known as Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno of Quiapo or NPJN. What are the motivations of the devotees? How [...] Read more.
This paper is about Catholicism in the Philippines, highlighting the events and objects of the popular devotion to the Black Christ Nazarene of Manila, popularly known as Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno of Quiapo or NPJN. What are the motivations of the devotees? How have the religious practices changed over time in Quiapo? This study also calls for more scholarly attention to the historical and religious connection between the Philippines and Mexico, so that through them we can better understand how Filipinos reimagined Baroque Catholicism. In addition to commercial goods, the Manila Galleon facilitated the first transpacific people-to-people exchange along with their ideas, and the transmission and transplantation of Catholicism to the Philippines. This study is both historical and ethnographic, using sources from the archives and research materials collected in the Philippines, Mexico, and Spain. Although the devotion to NPJN is central to the arguments of this paper, the discussion takes a broader consideration of Quiapo, a district of Manila as a shared space for performing the sacred vow or PSV, popularly known as panata. This analytical step is consistent with the main argument of this study, that consideration of the PSV particular to Jesus Christ is crucial to understanding the historical and religious connections and how popular Catholicism has changed in the Philippines. Full article
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12 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
God’s Benevolent Love in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic: Articulations and Experiences of Select Filipino Youth
by Rebecca Cacho and Fides del Castillo
Religions 2022, 13(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13020162 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6408
Abstract
Current studies show that the Christian faith is still robust in Philippine society and culture despite the global health crisis. This study investigates how select Filipino Christian youths intuited God’s benevolent love in the time of “social distancing” and how their experience of [...] Read more.
Current studies show that the Christian faith is still robust in Philippine society and culture despite the global health crisis. This study investigates how select Filipino Christian youths intuited God’s benevolent love in the time of “social distancing” and how their experience of God’s benevolence helped them to carry on despite the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors administered open-ended survey questions about God’s love to select Filipino Christian youths. The responses were analyzed using thematic analysis and categorizations. Using contextual analysis, the researchers critically reflected upon the respondents’ notions of God’s love and religious experiences from the two poles of Filipino culture and Judeo-Christian tradition. According to select Filipino Christian youths, God is present and faithful. God’s “kagandahang-loob” (benevolent love) for human persons is evinced in the care and kindness of family members and neighbors. God also enables human persons to prevail over challenges in life, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, God is the ultimate source of Christian hope. This hope is firmly anchored in Jesus Christ and the Church. Furthermore, God is forgiving and merciful. He continues to bless and give graces to human persons despite their sinfulness. These contemporary conceptualizations of God’s perfect interior goodness helped the select Filipino Christian youths cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
16 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
Religiosity and Contentment among Teachers in the Philippines during COVID-19 Pandemic: Mediating Effects of Resilience, Optimism, and Well-Being
by Inna Reddy Edara, Fides del Castillo, Gregory S. Ching and Clarence Darro del Castillo
Religions 2021, 12(10), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12100879 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6062
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on many areas of people’s lives all over the world, including in the area of education. Many educational institutions must un-preparedly transition from physical classes to distance learning modalities, affecting both the students and teachers. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on many areas of people’s lives all over the world, including in the area of education. Many educational institutions must un-preparedly transition from physical classes to distance learning modalities, affecting both the students and teachers. Given that the teachers are confronted with so many challenges, leading to their increased stress and mental health issues, this research project investigated the role of religiosity in the contentment of a sample of 296 teachers in the Philippines, mediated by the effects of resilience, optimism, and well-being. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that religiosity, resilience, optimism, and well-being were positively and significantly correlated with each other, while contentment was positively and significantly correlated with optimism and well-being. Regression analysis indicated no direct significant association between religiosity and contentment. Mediation analyses suggested that optimism partially mediated the impact of religiosity on well-being, whereas well-being fully mediated the impact of religiosity on contentment and the impact of optimism on contentment. Lastly, the measurement model indicated a significant path from religiosity to contentment through optimism and well-being. These significant results suggest that, while facing adversities in life, the teachers in the Philippines might use religiosity and its relevant dimensions as positive coping mechanisms to face the academic challenges triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, and thus derive contentment that is mediated by the positive effects of optimism and well-being. Full article
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16 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Thematic Cultural Exegesis on Selected Filipino Catholic Youth’s Perception of the Saints
by Philip Joseph Sarmiento
Religions 2021, 12(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050286 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 5856
Abstract
This study aims to describe the perspectives of selected Filipino Catholic youth on the saints. A descriptive survey research design was used with two hundred and thirty-seven (237) respondents from two universities in one of the provinces of the Philippines. A validated open-ended [...] Read more.
This study aims to describe the perspectives of selected Filipino Catholic youth on the saints. A descriptive survey research design was used with two hundred and thirty-seven (237) respondents from two universities in one of the provinces of the Philippines. A validated open-ended survey questionnaire served as a research instrument to gather pertinent data on the perspectives of selected Filipino youth respondents on the saints. Responses from the open-ended survey were transcribed and processed using thematic cultural exegesis. Findings revealed that the perspectives of selected Filipino youth respondents on the saints are as follows: they are devoted/dedicated to God (Itinataya at ibinubuhos ang sarili sa kalooban ng Diyos), they help people with their needs (Tumutulong sa masidhing pangangailangan ng mga tao), they provide inspiration to follow God’s will (Nagpapakita ng halimbawa ng pagtalima sa kalooban ng Diyos), they are models of righteous living (Isinasaloob at pinangangatawanan ang kagandahang-loob ng Diyos), they are faithful followers of Christ (Mga tapat na kinatawan ni Hesus) and they are witnesses of God’s graciousness/benevolence (Mga bakas ng kagandahang-loob ng Diyos). This study recommends that persons in charge of formation in schools and parishes may craft a contextualized catechesis that will further develop the perspectives of the Filipino youth in an inculturated way. Full article
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