Pediatric Oncology and Chemotherapy: Challenges and Strategies

A special issue of Pediatric Reports (ISSN 2036-7503).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 July 2023) | Viewed by 6682

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John’s University, New York, NY 11439, USA
Interests: chemotherapy; chemoresistance; oncology; cancer pharmacology; drug discovery; toxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death among both adults and children. In the United States, pediatric oncology gradually developed in the years following the 1950s. To date, chemotherapy is still one of the major therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment. Chemotherapy often causes serious side effects, which potentially contribute to morbidity and affect patients’ life quality. Such side effects could cause more serious subsequences in children. Compared to adult cancer, pediatric cancer is rare in absolute numbers. However, survivors of pediatric cancer often suffer from side effects and long-term health complications when they reach old age.

A set of problems have been highlighted due to the difference between pediatric and adult cancers. Furthermore, the number of approved anticancer therapies for pediatric cancer is significantly smaller than for adults due to specific requirements for a therapy to treat pediatric patients. All these in turn make optimizing therapeutic intervention at children rather difficult. This Special Issue aims at highlighting studies and reviews regarding pediatric oncology and chemotherapy. The scope of this Special Issue includes but is not limited to pediatric oncology, chemotherapeutic strategies, personalized medicine, and target therapy.

Thanks for your collaboration.

Dr. Jingquan Wang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • pediatric cancer
  • oncology
  • chemotherapy
  • side effects
  • cancer treatment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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11 pages, 2383 KiB  
Case Report
Prechemotherapy Transperitoneal Robotic-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy (RAPN) for a Wilms Tumor: Surgical and Oncological Outcomes in a Four-Year-Old Patient
by Marcello Della Corte, Elisa Cerchia, Marco Oderda, Paola Quarello, Franca Fagioli, Paolo Gontero and Simona Gerocarni Nappo
Pediatr. Rep. 2023, 15(3), 560-570; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15030051 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most frequent renal tumor in children. The SIOP-UMBRELLA Guidelines allow for nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in syndromic patients, as well as in cases of small (<300 mL) non-syndromic unilateral WTs, without lymph node involvement, and with a substantial [...] Read more.
Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most frequent renal tumor in children. The SIOP-UMBRELLA Guidelines allow for nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in syndromic patients, as well as in cases of small (<300 mL) non-syndromic unilateral WTs, without lymph node involvement, and with a substantial expected remnant renal function, following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We present a case of prechemotherapy transperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for a unilateral, non-syndromic Wilms tumor. Methods: A four-year-old child presented with a solid mass measuring 3.6 cm in diameter involving the upper right renal pole, incidentally detected during an abdominal echotomography. CT scan and abdominal MRI revealed no local infiltration or lymph node involvement, suggesting that the exophytic mass could be easily resected via an NSS robotic approach. Preoperative imaging did not strongly suggest WT. A virtual 3D reconstruction of the tumor was performed. Results: After the oncologic board approval, a robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with an intraperitoneal approach was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of WT. The patient subsequently received 10 doses of vincristine as adjuvant chemotherapy. A 28-month follow-up showed no tumor recurrence. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal RAPN may be an option for selected WT and warrants consideration as a challenging but advantageous approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Oncology and Chemotherapy: Challenges and Strategies)
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8 pages, 1552 KiB  
Case Report
Future Perspective for ALK-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma with Initial Central Nervous System (CNS) Involvement: Could Next-Generation ALK Inhibitors Replace Brain Radiotherapy for the Prevention of Further CNS Relapse?
by Makito Tanaka, Hiroki Miura, Soichiro Ishimaru, Gen Furukawa, Yoshiki Kawamura, Kei Kozawa, Seiji Yamada, Fumitaka Ito, Kazuko Kudo and Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Pediatr. Rep. 2023, 15(2), 333-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15020029 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) at diagnosis is rare and leads to poor prognosis with the use of the standard ALCL99 protocol alone. CNS-directed intensive chemotherapy, such as an increased dose of intravenous MTX, increased dose of [...] Read more.
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) at diagnosis is rare and leads to poor prognosis with the use of the standard ALCL99 protocol alone. CNS-directed intensive chemotherapy, such as an increased dose of intravenous MTX, increased dose of dexamethasone, intensified intrathecal therapy, and high-dose cytarabine, followed by cranial irradiation, has been shown to improve survival in this population. In this paper, the authors describe a 14-year-old male with an intracranial ALCL mass at onset who received CNS-directed chemotherapy followed by 23.4 Gy of whole-brain irradiation. After the first systemic relapse, the CNS-penetrating ALK inhibitor, alectinib, was applied; it has successfully maintained remission for 18 months without any adverse events. CNS-penetrating ALK inhibitor therapy might prevent CNS relapse in pediatric ALK-positive ALCL. Next-generation ALK inhibitors could be introduced as a promising treatment option, even for primary ALCL with CNS involvement, which could lead to the omission of cranial irradiation and avoid radiation-induced sequalae. Further evidence of CNS-penetrating ALK inhibitor combined therapy for primary ALK-positive ALCL is warranted to reduce radiation-induced sequalae in future treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Oncology and Chemotherapy: Challenges and Strategies)
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13 pages, 6025 KiB  
Case Report
A Rare Ovarian Tumor: The Sclerosing Stromal You Do Not Expect—A Case Series in the Adolescent Population and a Literature Review
by Maria Chiara Lucchetti, Francesca Diomedi-Camassei, Cinzia Orazi and Alice Tassi
Pediatr. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 20-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15010004 - 5 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare ovarian tumor arising from the sex cord-stromal cells that occurs mainly in young adults during the second and third decades of life and rarely in pediatric and adolescent populations. The objective of this study is to [...] Read more.
Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare ovarian tumor arising from the sex cord-stromal cells that occurs mainly in young adults during the second and third decades of life and rarely in pediatric and adolescent populations. The objective of this study is to report three illustrative cases of SST in young girls who had undergone surgery at our clinic in or after 2009, and to perform a literature review of this rare ovarian tumor. A retrospective chart review of female patients aged <18 years with a diagnosis of SST treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital was performed. Furthermore, a 10-year review of the SST literature was completed. Three cases of SST at our institution were outlined. After reviewing the literature, 18 SST cases were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 13.4 years, and the reported clinical presentations were abdominal or pelvic pain and menstrual irregularity. Seven patients had abnormal hormone tests or CA-125 levels. In approximately 30% of cases, conservative surgery was performed, preserving residual ovarian tissue. In conclusion, some preoperative findings may help in suggesting the presence of SST. However, definitive diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. It is important to consider this tumor because, given its benign behavior, a conservative approach is preferred, particularly in this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Oncology and Chemotherapy: Challenges and Strategies)
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