Special Issue "Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dorothee Misse
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IRD Institute MIVEGEC Unit 911 Avenue Agropolis 34394 Montpellier, France

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence and re-emergence of arboviruses is of great importance to public health, resulting in numerous outbreaks worldwide. More recently, the Zika and Chikungunya viruses have caused major outbreaks, in addition to an increasing trend in dengue incidence throughout the tropics and subtropics. Other arboviruses, such as Mayaro, yellow fever, West Nile, Usutu, Japanese encephalitis, bluetongue, and Rift Valley fever viruses, cause substantial morbidity and mortality in humans, domestic animals, or wildlife across the globe. The viruses are acquired by a vector from an infected host during blood meals and then propagate in the tissues of the vector. This arthropod then becomes a virus reservoir and is able to transmit the virus to a new vertebrate host. Despite much effort made over the last few decades of research on arboviruses, there are still many questions concerning how arboviruses survive in a cycle between two distinct host environments. Elucidating the multiple cellular pathways and factors that promote or hamper viral replication and/or pathogenesis is crucial. This Special Issue covers a wide range of topics focusing on arbovirus infection and aims to fill the gaps in our current understanding of host factors that regulate viral infection, arbovirus–host interactions, vector competence, and host genetic factors. All types of articles will be considered for publication, including short reports, original research, and review articles.

Dr. Dorothee Misse
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • arbovirus
  • arbovirus-host interactions
  • vector competence
  • host factors
  • viral replication

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Japanese Encephalitis in Small-Scale Pig Farming in Rural Cambodia: Pig Seroprevalence and Farmer Awareness
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050578 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cambodia, but circulation of JE virus (JEV) among domestic pigs has previously only been studied in the southern part of the country. The main purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of JEV antibodies in [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cambodia, but circulation of JE virus (JEV) among domestic pigs has previously only been studied in the southern part of the country. The main purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of JEV antibodies in smallholder pigs held in rural areas of Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, and Stung Treng provinces, northeastern Cambodia. Another purpose was to identify possible associations between serologic status and other factors, such as reproductive disorders, and to investigate the farmers’ knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases and use of preventive measures. In October 2019, 139 households were visited throughout the study area, and 242 pigs were sampled for blood. The sera were analysed with ELISA for JEV antibodies. Household representatives were interviewed, and data were recorded for each sampled pig. The apparent seroprevalence was 89.1% in pigs between 3 and 6 months of age, and 100% in pigs over 6 months of age. In total, 93.0% of the pigs tested positive. Province appeared to be the only factor significantly associated with serologic status (p < 0.001). Almost all (97.8%) respondents knew that mosquitos could transmit diseases, and 70.5% had heard of JE. However, only one respondent knew that JEV is transmitted to people through mosquito bites. Very few respondents knew that pigs can become infected with JEV, and no one knew that mosquitos transmit the virus. All families used some sort of mosquito protection for themselves, but only 15.1% protected their pigs from mosquito bites. The children were vaccinated against JE in 93 households, while adults only were vaccinated in eight households. The results suggest that JEV transmission is intense in northeastern Cambodia, and that people’s knowledge about the transmission route of JEV and the role of pigs in the transmission cycle is low. Fortunately, people are well aware of mosquito-borne diseases in general and use mosquito protection, and many children are vaccinated against JE. Nonetheless, it is important that national vaccination is continued, and that people—especially in rural areas where pigs are commonly kept—are educated on the ecology and transmission of JEV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Untargeted Metabolomics Insights into Newborns with Congenital Zika Infection
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040468 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, causes severe neurological clinical complications and has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fetal abnormalities known collectively as congenital Zika syndrome, and microcephaly. Studies have shown that ZIKV infection can alter cellular metabolism, [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, causes severe neurological clinical complications and has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fetal abnormalities known collectively as congenital Zika syndrome, and microcephaly. Studies have shown that ZIKV infection can alter cellular metabolism, directly affecting neural development. Brain growth requires controlled cellular metabolism, which is essential for cell proliferation and maturation. However, little is known regarding the metabolic profile of ZIKV-infected newborns and possible associations related to microcephaly. Furthering the understanding surrounding underlying mechanisms is essential to developing personalized treatments for affected individuals. Thus, metabolomics, the study of the metabolites produced by or modified in an organism, constitutes a valuable approach in the study of complex diseases. Here, 26 serum samples from ZIKV-positive newborns with or without microcephaly, as well as controls, were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics approach involving gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant alterations in essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as carbohydrates (including aldohexoses, such as glucose or mannose) and their derivatives (urea and pyruvic acid), were observed in the metabolic profiles analyzed. Our results provide insight into relevant metabolic processes in patients with ZIKV and microcephaly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Autoantibody Profiling in Plasma of Dengue Virus–Infected Individuals
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121060 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) with high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Autoimmune syndromes following dengue can be observed in long term follow up. Anti-DENV antibodies are cross-reactive with surface antigens on endothelial cells or platelets and [...] Read more.
Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) with high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Autoimmune syndromes following dengue can be observed in long term follow up. Anti-DENV antibodies are cross-reactive with surface antigens on endothelial cells or platelets and could be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue. However, no studies have analyzed the autoantibody repertoire and its roles in dengue pathogenesis. Hence, we aimed to describe the autoantibody profile in dengue patients with different disease severities. We utilized a protein array with 128 putative autoantigens to screen for IgM and IgG reactivity in plasma obtained from healthy donors (n = 8), asymptomatic individuals infected with DENV (n = 11) and hospitalized dengue patients (n = 21). Even though the patient cohort is small, we show that 80 IgM and 6 IgG autoantibodies were elevated in DENV infected patients compared to age-matched healthy donors. Individuals undergoing a primary DENV infection showed higher amounts of IgG autoantibodies, not IgM autoantibodies, compared to individuals undergoing secondary infection. No differences were observed between asymptomatic and hospitalized dengue patients. Nineteen autoantibodies, which react against several coagulation and complement components, correlated with platelet counts in severe dengue patients. This current study provides a framework to explore a possible role of candidate autoantibodies in dengue immunopathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chikungunya and Zika Viruses: Co-Circulation and the Interplay between Viral Proteins and Host Factors
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040448 - 09 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Chikungunya and Zika viruses, both transmitted by mosquito vectors, have globally re-emerged over for the last 60 years and resulted in crucial social and economic concerns. Presently, there is no specific antiviral agent or vaccine against these debilitating viruses. Understanding viral–host interactions is [...] Read more.
Chikungunya and Zika viruses, both transmitted by mosquito vectors, have globally re-emerged over for the last 60 years and resulted in crucial social and economic concerns. Presently, there is no specific antiviral agent or vaccine against these debilitating viruses. Understanding viral–host interactions is needed to develop targeted therapeutics. However, there is presently limited information in this area. In this review, we start with the updated virology and replication cycle of each virus. Transmission by similar mosquito vectors, frequent co-circulation, and occurrence of co-infection are summarized. Finally, the targeted host proteins/factors used by the viruses are discussed. There is an urgent need to better understand the virus–host interactions that will facilitate antiviral drug development and thus reduce the global burden of infections caused by arboviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Strategies for Assessing Arbovirus Genetic Variability in Vectors and/or Mammals
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110915 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Animal arboviruses replicate in their invertebrate vectors and vertebrate hosts. They use several strategies to ensure replication/transmission. Their high mutation rates and propensity to generate recombinants and/or genome segment reassortments help them adapt to new hosts/emerge in new geographical areas. Studying arbovirus genetic [...] Read more.
Animal arboviruses replicate in their invertebrate vectors and vertebrate hosts. They use several strategies to ensure replication/transmission. Their high mutation rates and propensity to generate recombinants and/or genome segment reassortments help them adapt to new hosts/emerge in new geographical areas. Studying arbovirus genetic variability has been used to identify indicators which predict their potential to adapt to new hosts and/or emergence and in particular quasi-species. Multiple studies conducted with insect-borne viruses laid the foundations for the “trade-off” hypothesis (alternation of host transmission cycle constrains arbovirus evolution). It was extrapolated to tick-borne viruses, where too few studies have been conducted, even though humans faced emergence of numerous tick-borne virus during the last decades. There is a paucity of information regarding genetic variability of these viruses. In addition, insects and ticks do not have similar lifecycles/lifestyles. Indeed, tick-borne viruses are longer associated with their vectors due to tick lifespan. The objectives of this review are: (i) to describe the state of the art for all strategies developed to study genetic variability of insect-borne viruses both in vitro and in vivo and potential applications to tick-borne viruses; and (ii) to highlight the specificities of arboviruses and vectors as a complex and diverse system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Zika Virus
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110898 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV), a neurotropic single-stranded RNA flavivirus, remains an important cause of congenital infection, fetal microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in populations where ZIKV has adapted to a nexus involving the Aedes mosquitoes and humans. To date, outbreaks of ZIKV have occurred in [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV), a neurotropic single-stranded RNA flavivirus, remains an important cause of congenital infection, fetal microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in populations where ZIKV has adapted to a nexus involving the Aedes mosquitoes and humans. To date, outbreaks of ZIKV have occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands, the Americas, and the Caribbean. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that the virus also has the potential to cause infections in Europe, where autochtonous transmission of the virus has been identified. This review focuses on evolving ZIKV epidemiology, modes of transmission and host-virus interactions. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic issues relating to cross-reactivity to the dengue flavivirus and concerns surrounding ZIKV infection in pregnancy are discussed. In the last section, current challenges in treatment and prevention are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Arboviruses)
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