Special Issue "A One Health Approach to the Control, Treatment and Prevention of Cryptosporidiosis"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ryan O'Handley
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pathobiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, Australia
Interests: parasitology; protistan parasites; pathogenesis; vaccination; chemotherapies; zoonoses; one health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although likely a major cause of diarrheal disease in the developing world for many years, the importance of cryptosporidiosis as a cause of diarrheal disease in the developing world has only recently been emphasized. Often associated with spectacular waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal disease in humans, recent research suggests that the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in humans in the developing world is very similar to the epidemiology of the disease observed by veterinarians in livestock industries. Specifically, the disease associated with infants and neonates occurs in crowded and unsanitary conditions, and is often part of a diarrheal complex involving rotavirus, with direct fecal–oral transmission playing a much larger role in transmission. Thus, the combined efforts of parasitologists, epidemiologists, molecular biologists and clinicians, from both the veterinary and human medical fields, may lead to important breakthroughs in the control, treatment, and prevention of cryptosporidiosis. For this Special Issue, we invite research and review manuscripts across both the human medical and veterinary fields. These articles may deal with aspects related to novel cheomtherapeutic or immunological approaches in the treatment and prevention of cryptosporidosis, the prevention of cryptosporidosis through low tech means (such as improved sanitation and management), as well as papers examining epidemiology of the cryptosporidiosis, (including zoonotic and zooanthroponitic aspects of the disease). Manuscripts on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the disease, in both humans and animals, are encouraged, along with manuscripts describing animal models and novel in vitro techniques.

Prof. Dr. Ryan O'Handley
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cryptosporidium
  • cryptosporidiosis
  • one health
  • human
  • veterinary
  • chemotherapy
  • vaccine
  • epidemiology
  • zoonosis
  • zooanthroponosis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Microscopic and Molecular Tracing of Cryptosporidium Oocysts: Identifying a Possible Reservoir of Infection in Red Grouse
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040057 - 13 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays [...] Read more.
Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylus tenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Contents were subjected to Immuno Magnetic Separation oocyst concentration techniques prior to examination by Immuno Fluorescence Antibody Test microscopy and molecular analysis on the 18S rRNA gene. Seven of 13 (54%) grit trays known to be used by infected grouse were positive for Cryptosporidium by IMS-IFAT, compared to two of 10 (20%) random background trays. Ten of the 13 (77%) trays used by infected birds amplified positive for Cryptosporidium by Polymerase Chain Reaction and three of the 10 (30%) random trays. All PCR amplified products sequenced matched with C. baileyi, with C. parvum also present in one tray. These data suggest that trays used to “worm” grouse may act as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection and their future design may need to be reconsidered to minimise contamination. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
Lessons Learned from Protective Immune Responses to Optimize Vaccines against Cryptosporidiosis
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010002 - 24 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. [...] Read more.
In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine. In this light, lessons learned from previously developed vaccines against Cryptosporidium spp. are at the foundation for development of better next-generation vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune responses elicited by naturally and experimentally-induced Cryptosporidium spp. infection and by several experimental vaccines in various animal models. Our aim is to increase awareness about the immune responses that underlie protection against cryptosporidiosis and to encourage promotion of these immune responses as a key strategy for vaccine development. Innate and mucosal immunity will be addressed as well as adaptive immunity, with an emphasis on the balance between TH1/TH2 immune responses. Development of more effective vaccines against cryptosporidiosis is needed to prevent Cryptosporidium spp.-related deaths in infants and toddlers in developing countries. Full article
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