Special Issue "Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II)"

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Natalia Pismenskaya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry, Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya st., 350040 Krasnodar, Russia
Interests: ion exchange membranes (monopoler, bipoler) and processes (electrodialysis, dialisis, etc.); transport phenomena in systems with ion exchange membranes (IEMs); concentration polarization, limiting current, coupled phenomena of concentration polarization (water splitting, electroconvection, gravitation convection, etc.); chemical reactions coupled with ions transfer in ampholyte (phosphates, ammonium, aminoacids, proteins, etc.) contaning IEM systems; IEMs fouling; IEM modification; IEM characterization (specific electrical conductivity, diffusion permeability, perselectivity, transport numbers, structure–properties relationship, current–voltage characteristics, chronopotentiommetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mass transfer characteristics, etc.); experimental techniques development for IEM and membrane system investigation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Semyon Mareev
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physical Chemistry Department, Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya str., 350040 Krasnodar, Russia
Interests: electrodialysis; ion exchange membranes; hydrodynamics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Ion exchange membranes and processes with their use are very attractive for the development of low reagent and environmentally-friendly technologies for purification, separation, and concentration of various substances.

The aim of the Special Issue is to obtain a holistic picture of the latest advances in the synthesis of new ion exchange materials, the modification of known and experimental ion exchange membranes, the experimental and theoretical study of their characteristics, and the use of these membranes in various processes.

The scope of the Special Issue is:

  • Commercial, experimental, and modified ion exchange membranes (monopolar, bipolar, mosaic, composite, multilayer; organic, inorganic; homogeneous, heterogeneous, etc.);
  • Their transport characteristics and structure–property relationships;
  • The concentration polarization and coupled phenomena (water splitting, electroconvection, gravitational convection, etc.) that occur when an electric field is applied;
  • The behavior of ion exchange membranes in various processes (dialysis, electrodialysis, electrolysis, capacitive deionization, fuel cells, microfluidic devices, bioreactors, potentiometric sensors, etc.);
  • Ion exchange membrane fouling, scaling and ways to counter these phenomena;
  • New methods of studying the properties of ion exchange membranes and membrane systems;
  • New areas for the application of ion exchange membranes.

Prof. Dr. Natalia Pismenskaya
Dr. Semyon Mareev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
An Investigation of a (Vinylbenzyl) Trimethylammonium and N-Vinylimidazole-Substituted Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride-Co-Hexafluoropropylene) Copolymer as an Anion-Exchange Membrane in a Lignin-Oxidising Electrolyser
Membranes 2021, 11(6), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060425 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Electrolysis is seen as a promising route for the production of hydrogen from water, as part of a move to a wider “hydrogen economy”. The electro-oxidation of renewable feedstocks offers an alternative anode couple to the (high-overpotential) electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction for developing [...] Read more.
Electrolysis is seen as a promising route for the production of hydrogen from water, as part of a move to a wider “hydrogen economy”. The electro-oxidation of renewable feedstocks offers an alternative anode couple to the (high-overpotential) electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction for developing low-voltage electrolysers. Meanwhile, the exploration of new membrane materials is also important in order to try and reduce the capital costs of electrolysers. In this work, we synthesise and characterise a previously unreported anion-exchange membrane consisting of a fluorinated polymer backbone grafted with imidazole and trimethylammonium units as the ion-conducting moieties. We then investigate the use of this membrane in a lignin-oxidising electrolyser. The new membrane performs comparably to a commercially-available anion-exchange membrane (Fumapem) for this purpose over short timescales (delivering current densities of 4.4 mA cm−2 for lignin oxidation at a cell potential of 1.2 V at 70 °C during linear sweep voltammetry), but membrane durability was found to be a significant issue over extended testing durations. This work therefore suggests that membranes of the sort described herein might be usefully employed for lignin electrolysis applications if their robustness can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Permselectivity of Cation Exchange Membranes Modified by Polyaniline
Membranes 2021, 11(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11030227 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
This work discusses the applicability of polyaniline-modified cation exchange membranes for the separation of monovalent/divalent cations by electrodialysis. A novel method of membrane modification directly in the electrodialysis unit is used to prepare permselective membranes. Complex characterization of the membranes before and after [...] Read more.
This work discusses the applicability of polyaniline-modified cation exchange membranes for the separation of monovalent/divalent cations by electrodialysis. A novel method of membrane modification directly in the electrodialysis unit is used to prepare permselective membranes. Complex characterization of the membranes before and after modification allows revealing the influence of membrane matrix on the modification efficiency. The characterization of the membranes includes determination of the diffusion permeability, specific conductivity and current–voltage curves in HCl, NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, as well as transport-structural parameters of the extended three-wire model. The characterization results are used to predict the influence of the modification on membrane permselectivity. The competitive mass transfer of singly and doubly charged cations in the electrodialysis process is investigated in underlimiting and overlimiting currents. Electrodialysis desalination of a solution containing Na+/Ca2+ or H+/Ca2+ cations shows that the modification leads to an increase in membrane permselectivity to single-charged cations due to the repulsion of Ca2+ ions from the positively charged membrane surface. The permselectivity of the polyaniline-modified perfluorinated membrane to H+ in the mixture of H+/Ca2+ cations is observed in all current regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Synthesis of DMEA-Grafted Anion Exchange Membrane for Adsorptive Discharge of Methyl Orange from Wastewaters
Membranes 2021, 11(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11030166 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 340
Abstract
This manuscript describes the synthesis of dimethylethanolamine (DMEA)-grafted anion exchange membrane (AEM) by incorporating dimethylethanolamine as ion-exchange content into the polymer matrix via the solution casting method. The synthesis of the DMEA-grafted AEM was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes the synthesis of dimethylethanolamine (DMEA)-grafted anion exchange membrane (AEM) by incorporating dimethylethanolamine as ion-exchange content into the polymer matrix via the solution casting method. The synthesis of the DMEA-grafted AEM was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared DMEA-grafted AEM exhibited higher thermal stability, homogeneous morphology, water uptake (WR) of 115%, and an ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.70 meq/g. It was used for the adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO) from an aqueous solution via batch processing. The effect of several operating factors, including contact time, membrane dosage, initial concentration of aqueous dye solution, and temperature on the percentage discharge of MO and adsorption capacity, was evaluated. Experimental data for adsorption of MO onto the DMEA-grafted AEM was analyzed with two parameter and three parameter nonlinear adsorption isotherm models but fitted best using a nonlinear Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption kinetics were studied by using several models, and attained results showed that experimental data fitted well to pseudo-second-order kinetics. A thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of MO onto the prepared DMEA-grafted AEM was an endothermic process. Moreover, it was a feasible and spontaneous process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Recovery of Acid and Base from Sodium Sulfate Containing Lithium Carbonate Using Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020152 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Lithium carbonate is an important chemical raw material that is widely used in many contexts. The preparation of lithium carbonate by acid roasting is limited due to the large amounts of low-value sodium sulfate waste salts that result. In this research, bipolar membrane [...] Read more.
Lithium carbonate is an important chemical raw material that is widely used in many contexts. The preparation of lithium carbonate by acid roasting is limited due to the large amounts of low-value sodium sulfate waste salts that result. In this research, bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) technology was developed to treat waste sodium sulfate containing lithium carbonate for conversion of low-value sodium sulfate into high-value sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. Both can be used as raw materials in upstream processes. In order to verify the feasibility of the method, the effects of the feed salt concentration, current density, flow rate, and volume ratio on the desalination performance were determined. The conversion rate of sodium sulfate was close to 100%. The energy consumption obtained under the best experimental conditions was 1.4 kWh·kg−1. The purity of the obtained sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide products reached 98.32% and 98.23%, respectively. Calculated under the best process conditions, the total process cost of BMED was estimated to be USD 0.705 kg−1 Na2SO4, which is considered low and provides an indication of the potential economic and environmental benefits of using applying this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Understanding of Adsorption and Desorption Mechanisms of Anthocyanins and Proanthocyanidins on Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Cation-Exchange Membranes
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020136 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The presence of membrane fouling is the main drawback in membrane processes, and it is related to the premature use and high cost for the replacement of membranes. Polyphenols in cranberry juice are associated with ion-exchange membrane fouling, and it results in a [...] Read more.
The presence of membrane fouling is the main drawback in membrane processes, and it is related to the premature use and high cost for the replacement of membranes. Polyphenols in cranberry juice are associated with ion-exchange membrane fouling, and it results in a loss of these beneficial compounds in the juice when treated by membrane processes such as electrodialysis. In the present work, four heterogeneous or pseudohomogeneous cation-exchange membranes (CSE-fg, MK-40, CEM Type-II, and CJMC-5), different in terms of the polymer matrix (aromatic, aliphatic), exchange capacity, size, and location of meso and macropores, were studied to understand the impact of the membrane structure and physico-chemical properties on adsorption and desorption of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins) from cranberry juice. It appeared from these results that MK-40, CEM Type-II, and CSE-fg were more prone to fouling due to their high ion-exchange capacity, their thickness, and the presence of meso and macropores in their structure. Indeed, electrostatic interactions occurred between fixed groups of membranes and polyphenolic ions. Desorption of the entire membrane and cryogenic grinding with pH adjusted to 10 allowed a better recovery of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PACs), respectively, since hydroxide ions competed with polyphenols and membrane that induced desorption of polyphenols. In the future, this new knowledge will become the basis for a more sensible choice of membranes and for the development of protocols for extending their life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Higher Acid Recovery Efficiency of Novel Functionalized Inorganic/Organic Composite Anion Exchange Membranes from Acidic Wastewater
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020133 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
In this work, the synthesis of a series of the functionalized inorganic/organic composite anion exchange membranes (AEMs) was carried out by employing the varying amount of inorganic filler consist of N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMSP-TMA+Cl [...] Read more.
In this work, the synthesis of a series of the functionalized inorganic/organic composite anion exchange membranes (AEMs) was carried out by employing the varying amount of inorganic filler consist of N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMSP-TMA+Cl) into the quaternized poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (QPPO) matrix for acid recovery via diffusion dialysis (DD) process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the fabrication of the functionalized inorganic/organic composite AEMs and the subsequent membrane characteristic measurements such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), linear swelling ratio (LSR), and water uptake (WR) gave us the optimum loading condition of the filler without undesirable filler particle aggregation. These composite AEMs exhibited IEC of 2.18 to 2.29 meq/g, LSR of 13.33 to 18.52%, and WR of 46.11 to 81.66% with sufficient thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability. The diffusion dialysis (DD) test for acid recovery from artificial acid wastewater of HCl/FeCl2 showed high acid DD coefficient (UH+) (0.022 to 0.025 m/h) and high separation factor (S) (139-260) compared with the commercial membrane. Furthermore, the developed AEMs was acceptably stable (weight loss < 20%) in the acid wastewater at 60 °C as an accelerated severe condition for 2 weeks. These results clearly indicated that the developed AEMs have sufficient potential for acid recovery application by DD process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Power Generation Performance of a Pilot-Scale Reverse Electrodialysis Using Monovalent Selective Ion-Exchange Membranes
Membranes 2021, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11010027 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising process for harvesting energy from the salinity gradient between two solutions without environmental impacts. Seawater (SW) and river water (RW) are considered the main RED feed solutions because of their good availability. In Okinawa Island (Japan), SW [...] Read more.
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising process for harvesting energy from the salinity gradient between two solutions without environmental impacts. Seawater (SW) and river water (RW) are considered the main RED feed solutions because of their good availability. In Okinawa Island (Japan), SW desalination via the reverse osmosis (RO) can be integrated with the RED process due to the production of a large amount of RO brine (concentrated SW, containing ~1 mol/dm3 of NaCl), which is usually discharged directly into the sea. In this study, a pilot-scale RED stack, with 299 cell pairs and 179.4 m2 of effective membrane area, was installed in the SW desalination plant. For the first time, asymmetric monovalent selective membranes with monovalent selective layer just at the side of the membranes were used as the ion exchange membranes (IEMs) inside the RED stack. Natural and model RO brines, as well as SW, were used as the high-concentrate feed solutions. RW, which was in fact surface water in this study and close to the desalination plant, was utilized as the low-concentrate feed solution. The power generation performance investigated by the current-voltage (I–V) test showed the maximum gross power density of 0.96 and 1.46 W/m2 respectively, when the natural and model RO brine/RW were used. These are a 50–60% improvement of the maximum gross power of 0.62 and 0.97 W/m2 generated from the natural and model SW, respectively. The approximate 50% more power generated from the model feed solutions can be assigned to the suppression of concentration polarization of the RED stack due to the absence of multivalent ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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Article
Transport and Electrochemical Characteristics of CJMCED Homogeneous Cation Exchange Membranes in Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride, and Sodium Sulfate Solutions
Membranes 2020, 10(8), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10080165 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Recently developed and produced by Hefei Chemjoy Polymer Material Co. Ltd., homogeneous CJMC-3 and CJMC-5 cation-exchange membranes (CJMCED) are characterized. The membrane conductivity in NaCl, Na2SO4, and CaCl2 solutions, permeability in respect to the NaCl and CaCl2 [...] Read more.
Recently developed and produced by Hefei Chemjoy Polymer Material Co. Ltd., homogeneous CJMC-3 and CJMC-5 cation-exchange membranes (CJMCED) are characterized. The membrane conductivity in NaCl, Na2SO4, and CaCl2 solutions, permeability in respect to the NaCl and CaCl2 diffusion, transport numbers, current–voltage curves (CVC), and the difference in the pH (ΔpH) of the NaCl solution at the desalination compartment output and input are examined for these membranes in comparison with a well-studied commercial Neosepta CMX cation-exchange membrane produced by Astom Corporation, Japan. It is found that the conductivity, CVC (at relatively low voltages), and water splitting rate (characterized by ΔpH) for both CJMCED membranes are rather close to these characteristics for the CMX membrane. However, the diffusion permeability of the CJMCED membranes is significantly higher than that of the CMX membrane. This is due to the essentially more porous structure of the CJMCED membranes; the latter reduces the counterion permselectivity of these membranes, while allowing much easier transport of large ions, such as anthocyanins present in natural dyes of fruit and berry juices. The new membranes are promising for use in electrodialysis demineralization of brackish water and natural food solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion-Exchange Membranes and Processes (Volume II))
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