Special Issue "Music Therapy"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Suzanne Hanser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Music Therapy Department, Berklee College of Music, Boston, 02215 MA, USA
Interests: music therapy in integrative medicine/health; stress and pain management; oncology; cardiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the American Music Therapy Association, music therapy refers to the “clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals for people of all ages and ability levels within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program”. In the medical setting, music therapists serve people who are coping with pain, anxiety, unpleasant symptoms, challenges due to hospitalization, compliance with uncomfortable procedures and treatments, and the distress associated with functional limitations and illness. Currently, as complementary and integrative medicine and health are partnering with conventional practices to provide more holistic approaches to the alleviation of suffering, music therapy is contributing creative interventions for overall wellness and wellbeing.

Research on music therapy in medicine has focused primarily on clinical outcomes and neurological underpinnings of music-based strategies. Promising evidence on pain and stress management supports the effectiveness of music therapy for individuals undergoing surgery or painful procedures, and dealing with a variety of chronic conditions. Yet much of the published literature fails to discriminate between music listening and musical activities conducted by non-music therapists, as opposed to systematic, individualized music therapy by a qualified professional. This Special Issue on “Music Therapy” seeks scientific reports, clinical trials, descriptive/case studies, and systematic reviews of music therapy by trained music therapists in medical settings. Additionally of interest are clinical practice theses, innovative music therapy protocols, and theoretical formulations of potential mechanisms.

Prof. Dr. Suzanne Hanser
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • music therapy
  • stress
  • pain
  • music medicine
  • symptom management
  • integrative medicine
  • integrative health

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Explorative Study of Qualities in Interactive Processes with Children and Their Parents in Music Therapy during and after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010028 - 18 Feb 2019
Abstract
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for severe disorders of the pediatric hematopoietic system. However, there is a need for supportive interventions due to physiological and psychological strain. Music therapy is used in health care to help patients through [...] Read more.
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for severe disorders of the pediatric hematopoietic system. However, there is a need for supportive interventions due to physiological and psychological strain. Music therapy is used in health care to help patients through difficult experiences and enable well-being. Our previous randomized studies showed significantly reduced heart rates four to eight hours after intervention as well as increased health-related quality of life. Methods: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the participants’ and parents’ own experiences of the interactive processes during the music therapy intervention. Six families were included. The data collection used collaborative research interviews. An independent psychologist facilitated the interviews with the children, the parents, and the music therapist and also performed the analysis. Results: Three main themes emerged: experiences of competency and recognition of self, interactive affect regulation as change potential, and importance of the therapeutic relationship. Conclusions: For the participants, music therapy developed into a significant and helpful experience, an important ingredient in coping with and managing the treatment period at the hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Emotional Effects of Live and Recorded Music in Various Audiences and Listening Situations
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010016 - 22 Jan 2019
Abstract
Background: We assume that the emotional response to music would correspond to increased levels of arousal, and that the valence of the music exemplified by sad or joyful music would be reflected in the listener, and that calming music would reduce anxiety. This [...] Read more.
Background: We assume that the emotional response to music would correspond to increased levels of arousal, and that the valence of the music exemplified by sad or joyful music would be reflected in the listener, and that calming music would reduce anxiety. This study attempts to characterize the emotional responses to different kinds of listening. Methods: Three experiments were conducted: (1) School children were exposed to live chamber music, (2) two adult audiences who were accustomed to classical music as a genre listened to chamber music, and (3) elderly listeners were exposed to recorded classical music of a sad character with and without words. Participants were asked to fill in visual analogue 10-cm scales along dimensions of: tiredness-arousal, sadness-joy, and anxiety-calmness. Ratings before exposure were compared with ratings after exposure. Results: The strongest positive emotional responses were observed in the live performances for listeners accustomed to classical music. School children tended to become tired during the concert, particularly the youngest children. There was a calming effect among school children, but in the oldest category increased joy was reported. Conclusions: The findings indicate that emotional response to music varies by type of audience (young, old, experience of classical music), and live or recorded music. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Use of Music as an Environmental Intervention and Quality of Care in Nursing Homes: A Qualitative Case Study in Norway
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010012 - 18 Jan 2019
Abstract
Background: The systematic use of music as an environmental intervention in nursing homes shows beneficial effects on patients’ health, safety, and quality of life in a care-related perspective. A county in Norway and a Nursing Education Department in a region of Norway collaborated [...] Read more.
Background: The systematic use of music as an environmental intervention in nursing homes shows beneficial effects on patients’ health, safety, and quality of life in a care-related perspective. A county in Norway and a Nursing Education Department in a region of Norway collaborated on the project “systematic use of music as environmental intervention and quality of care in nursing homes” for nursing students. Methods: This study from Norway (2017) had a qualitative and explorative approach. The sample (n = 33) was strategically and conveniently selected. Seven different focus group interviews consisted of nursing students, practice counselors, teachers, and project leaders, representing three nursing homes and healthcare centers. Passive observation lasting two days in each of the six departments was executed in order to observe environmental treatment in practice. Results: The beneficial aspects of using music as an environmental intervention in nursing homes increased among the students, and contributed to improved interaction, communication, and development of care with the patients. Students who participated actively in musical interaction such as improvisation, singing, and music listening with the patients were committed and motivated. The staff and management showed varied enthusiasm for the project. Conclusions: If the systematic use of music as environmental therapy and quality of care in elderly care is to be successful, it seems vital to include this theme early in nursing education. By creating early involvement among nurses, it might influence, inspire, and encourage involvement among employees and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
Open AccessArticle
Music Therapy Self-Care Group for Parents of Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Clinical Pilot Intervention
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040134 - 16 Dec 2018
Abstract
Background: The parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infants’ care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their [...] Read more.
Background: The parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infants’ care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’ needs, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer, in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group was provided for both parents, twice a week, in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression were at the center of the MT group sessions. The parents completed a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: The parents highly valued the MT self-care group in the NICU. On average, there was a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% improvement in stress levels, and 12% improvement in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately from their babies’ treatment, with culturally sensitive interventions aimed at improving parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Music Therapy and Other Music-Based Interventions in Pediatric Health Care: An Overview
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010025 - 14 Feb 2019
Abstract
Background: In pediatric health care, non-pharmacological interventions such as music therapy have promising potential to complement traditional medical treatment options in order to facilitate recovery and well-being. Music therapy and other music-based interventions are increasingly applied in the clinical treatment of children and [...] Read more.
Background: In pediatric health care, non-pharmacological interventions such as music therapy have promising potential to complement traditional medical treatment options in order to facilitate recovery and well-being. Music therapy and other music-based interventions are increasingly applied in the clinical treatment of children and adolescents in many countries world-wide. The purpose of this overview is to examine the evidence regarding the effectiveness of music therapy and other music-based interventions as applied in pediatric health care. Methods: Surveying recent literature and summarizing findings from systematic reviews, this overview covers selected fields of application in pediatric health care (autism spectrum disorder; disability; epilepsy; mental health; neonatal care; neurorehabilitation; pain, anxiety and stress in medical procedures; pediatric oncology and palliative care) and discusses the effectiveness of music interventions in these areas. Results: Findings show that there is a growing body of evidence regarding the beneficial effects of music therapy, music medicine, and other music-based interventions for children and adolescents, although more rigorous research is still needed. The highest quality of evidence for the positive effects of music therapy is available in the fields of autism spectrum disorder and neonatal care. Conclusions: Music therapy can be considered a safe and generally well-accepted intervention in pediatric health care to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. As an individualized intervention that is typically provided in a person-centered way, music therapy is usually easy to implement into clinical practices. However, it is important to note that to exploit the potential of music therapy in an optimal way, specialized academic and clinical training and careful selection of intervention techniques to fit the needs of the client are essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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Other

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Open AccessProtocol
Music Therapy as Treatment of Negative Symptoms for Adult Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia—Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled and Blinded Study
Medicines 2019, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6020046 - 01 Apr 2019
Abstract
Background: Three Cochrane reviews show that music therapy has a positive effect on schizophrenia concerning general functioning and positive/negative symptoms. This study aims to replicate these results in the Danish health system, a requirement for recommendation in guidelines from the Danish National Board [...] Read more.
Background: Three Cochrane reviews show that music therapy has a positive effect on schizophrenia concerning general functioning and positive/negative symptoms. This study aims to replicate these results in the Danish health system, a requirement for recommendation in guidelines from the Danish National Board of Health. Methods: The study is a randomized, controlled multi-site study, with a blinded design, aiming to include 90 participants who are 18–65 years in age, diagnosed according to ICD-10 with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The participants are randomized to one of two different music therapy activities for 25 weekly sessions. The study interventions are added to standard care. Outcome measures are rated at baseline, after 15 sessions and post therapy. A qualitative interview is performed as a one month follow up at the end of study. The primary intended outcome is a reduction in negative symptoms. The secondary intended outcome is progression in quality of life, alliance and psychosocial functioning. Results: As this study is still running, the results are not yet available. Conclusion: The study will investigate the direct effects of music therapy on negative symptoms as part of schizophrenia in a blinded, randomized trial. If proven effective, music therapy can be added to the small treatment armamentarium of effective therapies for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Music-Based Therapeutic Interventions for People with Dementia: A Mini-Review
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040109 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The growing population of people with dementia worldwide calls attention to the burdens associated with age-related decline that affects physiology, psychological and cognitive status, and social/emotional wellbeing. The current standards in geriatric care recommend non-pharmacological approaches to these challenges, including safe approaches to [...] Read more.
The growing population of people with dementia worldwide calls attention to the burdens associated with age-related decline that affects physiology, psychological and cognitive status, and social/emotional wellbeing. The current standards in geriatric care recommend non-pharmacological approaches to these challenges, including safe approaches to managing pain and stress, enhancing symptom relief, and fostering independent lifestyles with the highest quality of life possible. The purpose of this article is to provide definitions of music-based interventions, music therapy applications and clinician qualifications, as well as an umbrella mini-review of meta-analyses regarding music-based interventions for individuals with dementia. Our findings indicate that most descriptions of music therapy protocols in the research lack sufficient detail to enable researchers to compare and replicate studies, and clinicians to apply techniques. Definitions of music therapy and music-based interventions are inconsistent, and practitioners vary in their professional training and preparation for implementing music-based clinical strategies. We recommend that future researchers provide thorough descriptions of music therapy and music-based interventions in their protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music Therapy)
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