Special Issue "Ocean Acidification and Marine Biodiversity"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pauline Ross
Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Health; University of Western Sydney; Hawkesbury, Building K12; Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC 1797; Sydney, Australia
Interests: Ocean acidification, estuarine organisms, multi-stressors, molluscs, larval development, settlement, recruitment, saltmarshes, mangroves, barnacles
Dr. Laura Parker
Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Health; University of Western Sydney; Hawkesbury, Building K12; Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC 1797; Sydney, Australia
Interests: Ocean acidification; multi-stressors; molluscs; larval development; marine invertebrate physiology; adaptation; aquaculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring at an alarming rate in response to the enormous input of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Over this century, elevations in atmospheric CO2 will lead to levels of OA that are detrimental to the growth, development and survival of numerous marine organisms, especially those with calcareous shells and structures. Recent reviews of the literature suggest that the early life history stages of marine organisms will be most sensitive. To date, most studies focus on the impacts of OA as a sole stressor, but this ignores the ‘real world’ situation, where these critical life history stages will be impacted by multiple environmental stressors. Temperature increases, greater salinity fluctuations and increases in the number, severity, extension and duration of hypoxic zones are also predicted to occur over this century and will likely act synergistically with OA to detrimentally impact marine organisms and ecosystems. With the exception of a handful of studies on OA and temperature, the synergistic impacts of OA in combination with other climate change related stressors on marine organisms are virtually unknown. This special issue will assess the impacts of OA in synergy with other climate change related stressors including increasing temperature, salinity, hypoxia and food concentration on adult and larval/early life history stages of marine organisms to determine which biochemical/physiological processes are most vulnerable.

Professor Pauline Ross

Dr. Laura Parker
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • ocean acidification
  • ocean warming
  • marine organisms
  • multiple stressors
  • marine larvae
  • marine invertebrate physiology
  • thermal thresholds
  • salinity
  • hypoxia
  • synergistic/interactive impacts
  • resilience

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Marine Microphytobenthic Assemblage Shift along a Natural Shallow-Water CO2 Gradient Subjected to Multiple Environmental Stressors
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1425-1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse3041425 - 01 Dec 2015
Cited by 19
Abstract
Predicting the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on coastal ecosystems requires an understanding of the responses of algae, since these are a vital functional component of shallow-water habitats. We investigated microphytobenthic assemblages on rock and sandy habitats along a shallow subtidal p [...] Read more.
Predicting the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on coastal ecosystems requires an understanding of the responses of algae, since these are a vital functional component of shallow-water habitats. We investigated microphytobenthic assemblages on rock and sandy habitats along a shallow subtidal pCO2 gradient near volcanic seeps in the Mediterranean Sea. Field studies of natural pCO2 gradients help us understand the likely effects of ocean acidification because entire communities are subjected to a realistic suite of environmental stressors such as over-fishing and coastal pollution. Temperature, total alkalinity, salinity, light levels and sediment properties were similar at our study sites. On sand and on rock, benthic diatom abundance and the photosynthetic standing crop of biofilms increased significantly with increasing pCO2. There were also marked shifts in diatom community composition as pCO2 levels increased. Cyanobacterial abundance was only elevated at extremely high levels of pCO2 (>1400 μatm). This is the first demonstration of the tolerance of natural marine benthic microalgae assemblages to elevated CO2 in an ecosystem subjected to multiple environmental stressors. Our observations indicate that Mediterranean coastal systems will alter as pCO2 levels continue to rise, with increased photosynthetic standing crop and taxonomic shifts in microalgal assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Acidification and Marine Biodiversity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010028 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Ocean Acidification (OA) represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with [...] Read more.
Ocean Acidification (OA) represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Acidification and Marine Biodiversity)
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