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Topical Collection "Diet, Nutrition and Oral Health"

Editors

Dr. Amit Arora
E-Mail Website
Chief Guest Editor
School of Health Sciences & Translational Health Research Institute Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2571, Australia
Interests: breastfeeding; chronic disease; culturally and linguistically diverse populations; dental health; epidemiology; global health; health promotion; health services research; infant feeding; maternal and child health
Prof. Dr. Fatemeh Vida Zohoori
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health & Life Sciences, Centre for Public Health Research, Teesside University, Middlesbrough Tees Valley TS1 3BX, UK
Interests: public health and nutrition;oral health and fluorides;dietary assessment methods;biomarkers of exposure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear colleagues,

Oral diseases impair quality of life and have a negative impact on self-esteem, eating ability, causing pain, anxiety and impaired social functioning. They present a significant burden on health care systems around the world and are also recognised as a significant contributor to general health.

Excess consumption of sugars is harmful for both general and oral health. There is large quantity of good quality and strong evidence to suggest an association between high intake of free sugars and both general and oral health related diseases. Diet and nutrition play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of good oral health throughout the entire life course. Their role in the etiology and prevention of oral diseases is well established. Some of the oral conditions influenced by diet and nutrition include dental caries, developmental defects of enamel, dental erosion, periodontal disease, and oral cancer.

For the first time in 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the consumption of free sugars to be less than 10% of our dietary intake. The WHO updated the recommendations in 2003, again recommending populations consume <10% energy intake from free sugars. In 2015, using the WHO revised framework for Guideline Development the WHO developed a Guideline for Sugars Intake for Adults and Children which made a strong recommendation that individuals limit consumption of free sugars to <10% of energy intake and preferabley to <5% energy intake, to protect oral health throughout the life-course.

This Special Edition is intended to provide current research and policy developments on diet, nutrition and oral health. This issue is open to any subject area of public health, health promotion, economics, and policy related to the diet and nutritional determinants of oral health across the life course. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Amit Arora
Prof. Dr. Fatemeh Vida Zohoori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Sugars
  • Dental caries
  • Periodontal disease
  • Dental erosion
  • Impact of tooth loss on nutrition
  • Sugar sweetened beverages
  • Common risk factors in oral diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Dental Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency during Pregnancy and Early Infancy—An Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041932 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Vitamin D (25OHD) status during pregnancy is closely correlated with foetal and new-born 25OHD. Calcification for primary teeth begins from the fourth month of intrauterine life and from birth for permanent teeth. Dental consequences of severe 25OHD deficiency are well documented; however, consequences [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (25OHD) status during pregnancy is closely correlated with foetal and new-born 25OHD. Calcification for primary teeth begins from the fourth month of intrauterine life and from birth for permanent teeth. Dental consequences of severe 25OHD deficiency are well documented; however, consequences are less documented for milder degrees of 25OHD deficiency. This study examined the dental consequences of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during gestation and infancy in a cohort of 81 New Zealand children. Pregnancy and birth data for the children and their mothers and 25OHD status during gestation, birth and at five months were obtained, and dental examinations were conducted. Associations between 25OHD and enamel defects or caries experience were investigated. Of the 81 children, 55% had experienced dental caries and 64% had at least one enamel defect present. Vitamin D insufficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/L) at all timepoints was not associated with enamel defect prevalence, but during third trimester pregnancy it was associated with an increased caries risk IRR of 3.55 (CI 1.15–10.92) by age 6. In conclusion, maternal 25OHD insufficiency during the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with greater caries experience in primary dentition. No association was found between early life 25OHD and enamel defect prevalence or severity. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Common Determinants of Dental Caries and Obesity in Children: A Multi-Ethnic Nested Birth Cohort Study in the United Kingdom
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312561 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
The article examines the common determinants of childhood dental caries and obesity. Longitudinal data from the Born in Bradford cohort study (BiB1000) (n = 1735) and dental data (dental general anaesthetics (GA) and oral health survey 2014/15) (n = 171) were used to [...] Read more.
The article examines the common determinants of childhood dental caries and obesity. Longitudinal data from the Born in Bradford cohort study (BiB1000) (n = 1735) and dental data (dental general anaesthetics (GA) and oral health survey 2014/15) (n = 171) were used to test a framework on the social determinants of childhood dental caries (decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index) and obesity (body mass index (BMI)). The BiB1000 data were collected at pregnancy week 26–28 and after birth at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. The determinants were demographics, wellbeing, socio-economic status (SES), dietary behaviours and physical activity behaviour of the children. Missing data were accounted for through multiple imputation (MI). The framework was tested through structural equation modelling. Overall, the model fit was adequate. No alcohol consumption of the mother after giving birth, higher frequency of child drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, emotional and behavioural difficulties of the child and being male were directly associated with both BMI and dental caries. Caregivers uninvolved or indulgent feeding style were associated with higher BMI and less dental caries. Social deprivation was associated with lower BMI and higher dmft. Five determinants were directly associated with BMI only. Fifteen indirect paths were significant for both child dental caries and BMI. The findings suggest common determinants for both childhood obesity and dental caries. Common risk factor approach seems appropriate for planning future health promotion programmes. Full article
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Figure 1

Review
Interventions Targeting Bottle and Formula Feeding in the Prevention and Treatment of Early Childhood Caries, Overweight and Obesity: An Integrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312304 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Overweight, obesity and early childhood caries (ECC) are preventable conditions affecting infants and young children, with increased prevalence in those formula-fed. Previous research has focused on distinct outcomes for oral health and healthy weight gain. However, the aetiology may be linked through overlapping [...] Read more.
Overweight, obesity and early childhood caries (ECC) are preventable conditions affecting infants and young children, with increased prevalence in those formula-fed. Previous research has focused on distinct outcomes for oral health and healthy weight gain. However, the aetiology may be linked through overlapping obesogenic and cariogenic feeding behaviours, such as increased sugar exposure through bottle propping and overfeeding. Best-practice bottle feeding and transition to cup use may concurrently reduce overweight, obesity and ECC. This integrative review aimed to identify interventions supporting best-practice formula feeding or bottle cessation and examine the intervention effects on feeding, oral health and weight outcomes. The reviewers searched nine databases and found 27 studies that met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies focused on populations vulnerable to ECC or unhealthy weight gain. All studies focused on carer education; however, only 10 studies utilised behaviour change techniques or theories addressing antecedents to obesogenic or cariogenic behaviours. The outcomes varied: 16 studies reported mixed outcomes, and eight reported worsened post-intervention outcomes. While some studies reported improvements, these were not maintained long-term. Many study designs were at risk of bias. Effective intervention strategies for preventing ECC and child obesity require the holistic use of interdisciplinary approaches, consumer co-design and the use of behavioural change theory. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Socio-economic inequalities in sugars consumption: implications for oral health policy

Authors: Watt, RG; Aravena Rivas, Y; Tung, C; Hong, J; Heilmann, A
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, London, UK
Abstract: Evidence from around the world has shown that stark and persistent socio-economic inequalities exist in oral health. These inequalities in oral health are found across the lifecourse from early childhood to later life and in both clinical and subjective measures of oral health. Socio-economic inequalities in oral health are caused by the underlying social determinants – the structural, economic, social and environmental drivers of oral health behaviours and ultimately oral disease. The consumption of free sugars is the main cause of dental caries but relatively little is known about the relationship between socio-economic position and sugars consumption. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the evidence on socio-economic inequalities in sugars consumption across the lifecourse. A scoping review of the global literature on socio-economic inequalities in sugars consumption will be undertaken to assess the association between socio-economic position and sugars consumption. The implications of the review findings for oral health policy will then be considered.

Title: Strategies to Support Sustained Participant Engagement in an Oral Health Promotion Study for Aboriginal Australian Children and their Families
Authors: Megan L Hammersley; Lisa G Smithers; Joanne Hedges; Lisa M Jamieson
Affiliation: School of Health and Society, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Abstract: The health inequities of Indigenous people compared to non-Indigenous people are significant and long-standing across many countries. Colonisation and dispossession of land and culture has led to profound and devastating consequences on the health of Indigenous people. A lack of trust and cultural appropriateness of health services remain a barrier to participation in health care services. Similarly, engagement in research activities is also hindered by a history of unethical research practices. Creating partnerships between researchers and the Indigenous community is key in developing research studies which are culturally appropriate, acceptable and relevant to the needs of Indigenous people. Baby Teeth Talk is a randomised controlled trial which was conducted with Indigenous children and their mothers in South Australia. The study was developed in consultation and partnership with local Australian Aboriginal communities, overseen by the study’s Aboriginal reference group. Recruitment and retention of participants in the study has been strong over numerous waves of follow-up The purpose of this paper is to describe the strategies employed in the study that contributed to the successful and sustained engagement of the participants.

Title: Strategies to Support Sustained Participant Engagement in an Oral Health Promotion Study for Indigenous Children and their Families in Australia
Authors: Megan Hammersley
Affiliation: University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, AU
Abstract: The health inequities of Indigenous peoples compared to non-Indigenous peoples are significant and long-standing across many countries. Colonisation and dispossession of land and culture has led to profound and devastating consequences on the health of Indigenous peoples. A lack of trust and cultural security of health services remains a barrier to participation in health care services. Similarly, engagement in research activities is also hindered by a history of unethical research practices. Creating partnerships between researchers and Indigenous communities is key in developing research studies that are culturally appropriate, acceptable and relevant to the needs of Indigenous peoples. Baby Teeth Talk was a randomised controlled trial conducted with Indigenous children and their mothers in South Australia, which tested an intervention involving dental care, anticipatory guidance on oral health and dietary intake, and motivational interviewing. The study was developed in consultation and partnership with local Indigenous communities in Australia, overseen by the study’s Aboriginal reference group. Recruitment and retention of participants in the study have been strong over numerous waves of follow-up. The purpose of this paper is to describe the strategies employed in the study that contributed to the successful and sustained engagement of the participants. These strategies included the establishment of an Aboriginal reference group, building relationships with organisations and community, allocating adequate time commitment, reimbursement for participant time, developing rapport with participants, encouraging participant self-determination, and adaptation of dietary data collection to better suit participants.

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