Special Issue "The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Nursing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 6312

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andreas Konrad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: stretching; flexibility; biomechanics; muscle performance; training science; muscle–tendon unit; soccer science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Frequently exercise can have a positive impact on health and hence, it can be considered as a drug. However, certain factors like volume or intensity of an exercise have to be considered to not risk side effects. With regard to the musculoskeletal system, too much training load likely causes overuse injuries in both recreational and elite athletes. Therefore, several strategies to improve muscle performance (e.g., strength training) should be considered in sports practice to set a new limit of injury-threshold for an athlete. Moreover, approaches such as myofascial techniques, stretching, and massage are used by athletes and therapists to counteract possible side effects of a training load.

This Special Issue aims to publish innovative studies (original investigations and review articles) that explore the acute, prolonged, and long-term effects of exercise (e.g., stretching, myofascial release techniques, resistance training) on sports performance (e.g., jumping, strength, flexibility) and/or on injury prevention in all types of populations.

Dr. Andreas Konrad
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stretching
  • foam rolling
  • myofascial release
  • strength training
  • resistance training
  • strength
  • injury
  • recovery
  • performance

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Postural Control and Functional Ankle Stability in Professional and Amateur Skateboarders
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081009 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Basic maneuvers in skateboarding, such as the ollie, put the player at high risk for ankle injuries because of the position of the feet required to perform the maneuvers. This study investigated ankle stability and reaction time for the tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, [...] Read more.
Basic maneuvers in skateboarding, such as the ollie, put the player at high risk for ankle injuries because of the position of the feet required to perform the maneuvers. This study investigated ankle stability and reaction time for the tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, and fibularis brevis in professional and amateur skateboarders. In total, 16 professional and 16 amateur skateboarders were recruited as participants and underwent range of motion assessments, balance testing, and muscle reaction time measurements. The results revealed that professional skateboarders had a significantly smaller inversion angle compared to amateur players, which suggested better joint control and hence greater safety in the former. Balance testing results indicated better balance in professional skateboarders, and healthy skateboarders had better balance than did injured professional and amateur skateboarders. No significant difference in muscle reaction time was observed between amateur and professional skateboarders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Article
The Effect of Polarized Training on the Athletic Performance of Male and Female Cross-Country Skiers during the General Preparation Period
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070851 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of polarized training on body composition, cardiorespiratory function, and upper-body power of male and female cross-country skiers during the general preparation period. A total of 16 national cross-country skiers (8 male and 8 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of polarized training on body composition, cardiorespiratory function, and upper-body power of male and female cross-country skiers during the general preparation period. A total of 16 national cross-country skiers (8 male and 8 female; 8 national cross-country skiers and 8 national biathlon athletes) participated. Polarization training was conducted for 12 weeks from May to July in 2019 during the general preparation period for cross-country skiers. The low-weight, high-repetition method was used for strength training. The effect of the polarized training on body composition, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), respiratory exchange rate, all-out time, and ski ergometer exercise time was assessed. There was no change in weight, BMI, and muscle mass in male and female cross-country skiers following the 12 weeks of polarized training (p > 0.05). Male body fat percentage (pre 18.1%, post 12.7%) and female body fat percentage (pre 29.1%, post 21.4%) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). After training, VO2max increased by 7.72% in male athletes (pre 71.05 mL/kg/min, post 77.0 mL/kg/min) and 6.32% in female athletes (pre 60.26 mL/kg/min, post 64.33 mL/kg/min). Treadmill exercise time increased by 5.39% for male athletes (pre 1038 s, post 1064 s) and 2.23% for female athletes (pre 855 s, post 874 s). However, there was no significant difference between male and female athletes (p > 0.05). The 50% recovery time from the maximum heart rate to the target heart rate decreased by 64.52% in males (pre 168.8 s, post 102.6 s) and 6.48% in females (pre 135 s, post 129.6 s). Significant differences were found only in male athletes (p < 0.05). The double-pole 500 m exercise duration for the ski ergometer significantly decreased after the training for both sexes (p < 0.05). In this study, the 12 weeks of polarized training improved the body composition and athletic performance of all cross-country skiers. Interestingly, in this study, we confirmed that polarized training had a better effect on cardiorespiratory function in male cross-country skiers than in female cross-country skiers. Conversely, we found that the outcomes of the ski ergometer exercise factors were more effective in female athletes than in male athletes. Therefore, we insist that when applying a polarized training program to athletes, it should be planned in detail by sex, exercise amount, intensity, and type of training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
Article
The Relationship between Scapular Upward Rotation and Shoulder Internal and External Rotation Isokinetic Strength in Professional Baseball Pitchers
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060759 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
This study aims to assess the relationship between scapular upward rotation (SUR) across varying humeral-elevation angles (HEAs) and shoulder isokinetic strength and ratio in professional baseball pitchers. The subjects were professional baseball pitchers (n = 16) without a history of shoulder injury [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the relationship between scapular upward rotation (SUR) across varying humeral-elevation angles (HEAs) and shoulder isokinetic strength and ratio in professional baseball pitchers. The subjects were professional baseball pitchers (n = 16) without a history of shoulder injury in the last six months. The subject’s SUR angles were measured with the humerus elevated at HEAs of 0° (at rest), 60°, 90°, and 120° to the scapular plane. Shoulder isokinetic strength was evaluated for shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (PT%BW and TW%BW), and the ER/IR strength ratios were determined at 60, 120 and 180°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. The SUR angle at an HEA of 0° was positively correlated with IR strength at 120°/s (r = 0.535) and 180°/s (r = 0.522). The SUR angle at an HEA of 60° was negatively correlated with the ER/IR strength ratios at 60°/s (r = −0.505) and 120°/s (r = −0.500). The SUR angle at an HEA of 90° was negatively correlated with the ER/IR strength ratios at 60°/s (r = −0.574; r = −0.554) and 120°/s (r = −0.521; r = −0.589) as well as with ER strength at 180°/s (r = −0.591, r = −0.556). The SUR angle at an HEA of 120° was negatively correlated with ER strength at 60°/s (r = −0.558), 120°/s (r = −0.504; r = −0.524), and 180°/s (r = −0.543) and the ER/IR strength ratio at 60°/s (r = −0.517). In this study, we found that the ratio of isokinetic strength between ER and IR became closer to the normal range on increasing the SUR angle. In particular, an HEA of 90°, which resembles the pitching motion, showed a clear relationship between SUR, shoulder ER, and the ratio of ER/IR isokinetic strength in professional baseball pitchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Article
Gender Differences in Kinematic Analysis of the Lower Limbs during the Chasse Step in Table Tennis Athletes
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060703 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The chasse step is one of the most important footwork maneuvers used in table tennis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lower limb kinematic differences of table tennis athletes of different genders when using the chasse step. The 3D VICON [...] Read more.
The chasse step is one of the most important footwork maneuvers used in table tennis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lower limb kinematic differences of table tennis athletes of different genders when using the chasse step. The 3D VICON motion analysis system was used to capture related kinematics data. The main finding of this study was that the step times for male athletes (MA) were shorter in the backward phase (BP) and significantly longer in the forward phase (FP) than for female athletes (FA) during the chasse step. Compared with FA, knee external rotation for MA was larger during the BP. MA showed a smaller knee flexion range of motion (ROM) in the BP and larger knee extension ROM in the FP. Moreover, hip flexion and adduction for MA were significantly greater than for FA. In the FP, the internal rotational velocity of the hip joint was significantly greater. MA showed larger hip internal rotation ROM in the FP but smaller hip external rotation ROM in the BP. The differences between genders can help coaches personalize their training programs and improve the performance of both male and female table tennis athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Article
Emotional Changes and Functional Progressions during Postoperative Rehabilitation in Collegiate Student-Athletes: A Preliminary Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020184 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
An interrelationship between psychological and physical health is generally accepted in the field of sports medicine. This preliminary study explored the association between emotional changes and functional outcomes and aimed to describe how each aspect progresses during postoperative rehabilitation. Four collegiate student-athletes (1 [...] Read more.
An interrelationship between psychological and physical health is generally accepted in the field of sports medicine. This preliminary study explored the association between emotional changes and functional outcomes and aimed to describe how each aspect progresses during postoperative rehabilitation. Four collegiate student-athletes (1 female and 3 males) who underwent supervised postoperative rehabilitation due to a lower-extremity injury volunteered for participation in the study. Emotion was quantified using a visual analogue scale prior to and after each session while self-reported function using the Lower-extremity Functional Scale was assessed every eight sessions throughout rehabilitation. There was a moderate correlation between emotional changes and functional outcomes (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001). After the first emotional improvement, patients experienced six emotional deteriorations (28% of the entire rehabilitation period; F49,297 = 2.25, p < 0.0001), while their function consistently increased (F49,147 = 17.39, p < 0.0001). Clinicians should be aware of the relationship between emotional changes and functional progression as well as the occurrence of emotional fluctuations when supervising and consulting patients during postoperative rehabilitation. A larger study is warranted to generalize the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Article
A Combined Approach for Health Assessment in Adolescent Endurance Runners
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020163 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Background: It has been shown that prolonged exhaustive exercise, such as half-marathon running, could lead to transient post-exercise elevation of cardiac troponins, increase in oxidative stress, and mild decline in renal function in adolescent athletes. With increases in sports participation involving young people, [...] Read more.
Background: It has been shown that prolonged exhaustive exercise, such as half-marathon running, could lead to transient post-exercise elevation of cardiac troponins, increase in oxidative stress, and mild decline in renal function in adolescent athletes. With increases in sports participation involving young people, there has been much interest in pre and post health evaluations following exercise. Evaluations can be used to identify pre-existing health confounders and to examine any detrimental responses that may occur post exercise. Study purpose & Methods: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre and post exercise measures of cardiac function, serum albumin, systemic immunoglobulin (Serum IgA and IgG), cortisol and testosterone in adolescent (age: 16.2 ± 0.6) male endurance runners performing in 21-km maximal run. Results: Results revealed that cortisol, IgA and IgG levels significantly decreased 2, 4, and 24 h post exercise compared to pre-exercise levels (p < 0.05). Testosterone levels reduced 4 h post exercise (p < 0.05) but were restored to baseline values following 24 h. There were no changes recorded for albumin levels post exercise (p > 0.05). ECG assessments did not show any abnormalities at the T wave axis, ST segments and Q wave pre or post exercise. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that a single bout of prolonged maximum running is not likely to induce abnormal electrical activity in the heart, but does decrease serum immunoglobulin, and homeostasis of anabolic and catabolic hormones in trained adolescent endurance runners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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Communication
The Associations between Rapid Strength Development and Muscle Stiffness in Older Population
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010080 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Background: Previous studies suggest that the capacity for rapid force production of ankle plantar flexors is essential for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In healthy young adults, there were significant associations between rate of force development and muscle stiffness measured by [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies suggest that the capacity for rapid force production of ankle plantar flexors is essential for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In healthy young adults, there were significant associations between rate of force development and muscle stiffness measured by shear wave elastography. However, there has been no study investigating the association of rate of force development with shear elastic modulus in older adults. Methods: The muscle strength and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in both legs were measured in 17 elderly men and 10 elderly women (mean ± SD; 70.7 ± 4.1 years; 160.6 ± 8.0 cm; 58.7 ± 9.5 kg). We investigated the rate of force development of plantar flexors and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle using by shear wave elastography. Results: Our results showed that there were no significant associations between normalized rate of force development and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusion: This suggests that the capacity of rapid force production could be related not to muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, but to neuromuscular function in older individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Exercise on Sports Performance and Injury Prevention)
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