Special Issue "Global Climate Change and Geological Processes"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Manuel Rigo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Padova
Interests: stratigraphy; geochemistry; palaeontology; climate; mass extinctions; oceanic anoxic events

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global climate change, driven by release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from human activities, is dramatically changing the planetary environment and risks contributing to the “sixth mass extinction”. Greenhouse molecules (particularly CO2 and CH4) play a crucial role in controlling Earth’s climate, and changes are already observable. Though these changes are predictable via numerical models, the complexity of the Earth system means that the long-term consequences of rising temperatures and acidifying oceans remain highly uncertain, hampering efforts to make well-informed decisions. These uncertainties motivate the search for additional information about how the planet responds to major climatic perturbation.

Earth’s climate has significantly and repeatedly changed throughout the geological past, and although the recent rate of global warming appears to exceed that during previous episodes of climate change, the geological record holds some of the only direct information about the planetary response to perturbation, and about how global biogeochemical cycles mediate the impacts of climate change on the biosphere. Geological data can serve to illuminate patterns and processes that can provide wider context for present-day observational data and help to constrain models predicting the future evolution of Earth’s climate.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to provide more information by using multidisciplinary approach on distinctive time intervals affected by global climate and environmental changes along with severe biotic turnovers.

Prof. Manuel Rigo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • climate changes
  • environmental changes
  • geological processes
  • extinctions
  • ocean acidification

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Late Holocene Glacial Fluctuations of Schiaparelli Glacier at Monte Sarmiento Massif, Tierra del Fuego (54°24′ S)
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080340 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The Magallanes–Tierra del Fuego region, Southern Patagonia (53–56° S) features a plethora of fjords and remote and isolated islands, and hosts several thousand glaciers. The number of investigated glaciers with respect to the multiple Neoglacial advances is based on a few individual studies [...] Read more.
The Magallanes–Tierra del Fuego region, Southern Patagonia (53–56° S) features a plethora of fjords and remote and isolated islands, and hosts several thousand glaciers. The number of investigated glaciers with respect to the multiple Neoglacial advances is based on a few individual studies and is still fragmentary, which complicates the interpretation of the glacial dynamics in the southernmost part of America. Schiaparelli Glacier (54°24′ S, 70°50′ W), located at the western side of the Cordillera Darwin, was selected for tree-ring-based and radiocarbon dating of the glacial deposits. One focus of the study was to address to the potential dating uncertainties that arise by the use of Nothofagus spp. as a pioneer species. A robust analysis of the age–height relationship, missing the pith of the tree (pith offset), and site-specific ecesis time revealed a total uncertainty value of ±5–9 years. Three adjacent terminal moraines were identified, which increasingly tapered towards the glacier, with oldest deposition dates of 1749 ± 5 CE, 1789 ± 5 CE, and 1867 ± 5 CE. Radiocarbon dates of trunks incorporated within the terminal moraine system indicate at least three phases of cumulative glacial activity within the last 2300 years that coincide with the Neoglacial phases of the Southern Patagonian Icefield and adjacent mountain glaciers. The sub-recent trunks revealed the first evidence of a Neoglacial advance between ~600 BCE and 100 CE, which so far has not been substantiated in the Magallanes–Tierra del Fuego region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Climate Change and Geological Processes)
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Article
Evaluation of Different Pooling Methods to Establish a Multi-Century δ18O Chronology for Paleoclimate Reconstruction
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060270 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
To develop multi-century stable isotope chronologies from tree rings, pooling techniques are applied to reduce laboratory costs and time. However, pooling of wood samples from different trees may have adverse effects on the signal amplitude in the final isotope chronology. We tested different [...] Read more.
To develop multi-century stable isotope chronologies from tree rings, pooling techniques are applied to reduce laboratory costs and time. However, pooling of wood samples from different trees may have adverse effects on the signal amplitude in the final isotope chronology. We tested different pooling approaches to identify the method that is most cost-efficient, without compromising the ability of the final chronology to reflect long-term climate variability as well as climatic extreme years. As test material, we used δ18O data from juniper trees (Juniperus polycarpus) from Northern Iran. We compared inter-tree and shifted 5-year blocks serial pooling of stable isotope series from 5 individual trees and addition of one single series to a shifted serial pooled chronology. The inter-tree pooled chronology showed the strongest climate sensitivity and most synchronous δ18O variations with the individual tree ring analyses, while the shifted block chronologies showed a marked decline in high-frequency signals and no correlations with climate variables of the growth year. Combinations of block-pooled and single isotope series compensated the high-frequency decline but added tree-individual climatic signals. Therefore, we recommend pooling calendar synchronous tree rings from individual trees as a viable alternative to individual-tree isotope measurements for robust paleoclimate reconstructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Climate Change and Geological Processes)
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Article
Recession and Ice Surface Elevation Changes of Baranowski Glacier and Its Impact on Proglacial Relief (King George Island, West Antarctica)
Geosciences 2018, 8(10), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8100355 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Glacial forefields areas are dynamic landscapes, and due to the glacier frontal position changes, they are sensitive to climatic fluctuations. The results of the analysis of aerial photos, satellite imagery, archival maps, and terrestrial laser scanning surveys are presented. These investigations reveal that [...] Read more.
Glacial forefields areas are dynamic landscapes, and due to the glacier frontal position changes, they are sensitive to climatic fluctuations. The results of the analysis of aerial photos, satellite imagery, archival maps, and terrestrial laser scanning surveys are presented. These investigations reveal that the ice surface decreased during the period 1989–2001, when almost the entire current forefield was already uncovered. Moreover, it is shown that, since 1969, there has been a relationship between the changes in air temperature and the changes of the annual front position rate of Baranowski Glacier. Specifically, the results demonstrate that during the cooling observed for the Antarctic Peninsula Regions since 2000, there is a deceleration of the recession rate and ice surface elevation changes of Baranowski Glacier. It is also shown that the fluctuation of the areal extent of the glacier as well as ice surface elevation changes are closely associated with proglacial relief. Moreover, it is shown that the difference in the retreat of the northern and southern tongue of the glacier can be explained by the presence of relatively warm water in the shallow bay, which can enhance the melting process of the northern part. In addition, existence of long flutes and crevasse fill ridges on the analyzed forefield of Baranowski Glacier suggest that the former episodes of its surge, which could happen at least in the northern part of the forefield and middle part of the southern forefield of the glacier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Climate Change and Geological Processes)
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