Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters

A special issue of GeoHazards (ISSN 2624-795X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 14058

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Director General, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama 237-0061, Kanagawa, Japan
Interests: applied mechanics; computational mechanics; earthquake engineering; applied mathematics; system integration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent progress in computer and computational sciences is enabling us to perform innovative numerical analyses in many fields of science and engineering. This Special Issue aims to provide a state of the art report on advanced numerical simulation in earthquake engineering and related areas. For instance, we are interested in the development of a new analysis method for geo-hazards induced by earthquakes, sophisticated algorithms of solving problems for earthquake disaster evaluation, an integrated system that connects sequential events in earthquake hazards, disasters and post-disaster response, and the use of high-performance computing that is provided by massive parallel computers or general purpose GPUs. This Special Issue is not limited to these issues, and papers addressing other topics related to advanced numerical simulation are welcome. We are also calling for studies applying advanced numerical simulation to practical problems, the verification and validation of developed programs and numerical analysis models, as well as researchers of uncertainty quantification which is essential in the numerical simulation of earthquake hazards.

Prof. Dr. Muneo Hori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. GeoHazards is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • integrated earthquake simulation
  • crust-scale earthquake simulation
  • earthquake wave amplification
  • liquefaction analysis
  • structural seismic response analysis
  • soil–structure interaction
  • mass evacuation simulation
  • post-disaster traffic simulation
  • post-disaster social simulation
  • high performance computing
  • high fidelity model

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 7916 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Impact of the Viscoelastic Layer Thickness and the Frictional Strength to the Lithosphere Deformation in a Strike-Slip Fault: Insight to the Seismicity Pattern along the Great Sumatran Fault
by Maulidia A. Bening, David P. Sahara, Wahyu Triyoso and Dian Kusumawati
GeoHazards 2022, 3(4), 452-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3040023 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
As an earthquake is capable of causing significant losses, a strain buildup and release model following an earthquake is of importance for mitigation purposes. In this study, we aim to model strain buildup and release on a strike-slip fault which consists of elastic–brittle [...] Read more.
As an earthquake is capable of causing significant losses, a strain buildup and release model following an earthquake is of importance for mitigation purposes. In this study, we aim to model strain buildup and release on a strike-slip fault which consists of elastic–brittle (upper crust) and elastic–viscous (lower crust and upper mantle) layers using a finite element model. The fault strength during strain buildup is controlled by the friction coefficient and cohesion, in addition to the viscoelastic parameter, as shown in the deformation model using Maxwell’s material. In the strain buildup model, we found that the differential stress on the elastic layer is larger than that on the viscoelastic layer and that the differential stress increases with the thickness of the elastic layer. When the viscoelastic layer is thinner, the deformation observed on the surface is larger. However, the differential of stress in the strain release model on the elastic layer is smaller than that on the viscoelastic layer, which shows the transfer stress from the lower crust and upper mantle to the upper crust. Using the knowledge gained by varying the thickness and frictional strength of the lithosphere, we discuss the seismicity pattern observed along the Great Sumatran Fault. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters)
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10 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Construction and Usefulness Verification of Modeling Method of Subsurface Soil Layers for Numerical Analysis of Urban Area Ground Motion
by Hiroki Motoyama and Muneo Hori
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 242-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020013 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Estimation of urban seismic damage using numerical simulation needs an automatic modeling method of surface layers and residential buildings. This study focuses on modeling of surface layers and shows a method of constructing models by interpolating boring data. An important property of the [...] Read more.
Estimation of urban seismic damage using numerical simulation needs an automatic modeling method of surface layers and residential buildings. This study focuses on modeling of surface layers and shows a method of constructing models by interpolating boring data. An important property of the modeling method is robustness, that means that the method works for boring data with inconsistent soil layers. To satisfy this, we developed the method using artificial layers. We applied the method to a test site and checked its robustness. This test also showed that the method gave realistic models. Finally, we applied the method to the estimation of urban seismic damage and discussed the usefulness by comparing the result with one obtained by a conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters)
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16 pages, 8678 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ambiguity of Physical Properties of Three-Dimensional Crustal Structure Model on Coseismic Slip and Interseismic Slip Deficit in the Nankai Trough Region
by Sota Murakami, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita, Takane Hori and Yusaku Ohta
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 162-177; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020009 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2479
Abstract
Since huge earthquakes are expected along plate subduction zones such as the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough, the estimation of coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit is essential for immediate response and preliminary measures to reduce damage. Recently, analysis considering the complex topography [...] Read more.
Since huge earthquakes are expected along plate subduction zones such as the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough, the estimation of coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit is essential for immediate response and preliminary measures to reduce damage. Recently, analysis considering the complex topography and underground structure of the plate subduction zone has been performed for improving the estimation performance. However, the three-dimensional (3D) crustal structural model needs to be improved continuously. In this paper, we obtained Green’s functions for 3D crustal structural models with ambiguity by 3D crustal deformation analysis, and the coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit were estimated. Here we enabled the calculation of many Green’s functions with different physical properties of the 3D crustal structure by utilizing a GPU-based 3D crustal deformation analysis method that significantly reduces the analysis cost. The physical properties on the upper plate’s side, which are located above the plate boundary fault, were changed. We found no significant difference in the estimation performance, except for the upper crust, which most of the fault slip area is in contact with, in the case of coseismic slip estimation. In contrast, the coseismic slip estimation when the properties of the upper crust was changed had a significant error, and a negative slip was estimated at the deep part of the plate boundary where no slip was originally given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters)
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18 pages, 9073 KiB  
Article
A Non-Signalized Junction Model for Agent-Based Simulations of Car–Pedestrian Mode Mass Evacuations
by Maddegedara Lalith, Wasuwat Petprakob, Muneo Hori, Tsuyoshi Ichimura and Kohei Fujita
GeoHazards 2022, 3(2), 144-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3020008 - 30 Mar 2022
Viewed by 3260
Abstract
During major disasters, such as a subduction earthquake and the associated tsunami, combinations of uncommon conditions such as non-functioning traffic signals, a large number of pedestrians on traffic lanes, and debris scattered on roads can be widespread. It is vital to take these [...] Read more.
During major disasters, such as a subduction earthquake and the associated tsunami, combinations of uncommon conditions such as non-functioning traffic signals, a large number of pedestrians on traffic lanes, and debris scattered on roads can be widespread. It is vital to take these uncommon conditions into account since they can significantly influence the evacuation progress. Agent-Based Models (ABMs) with capabilities to reproduce evacuees’ behaviors as emergent phenomena is promising method to simulate combinations of such rare conditions. This paper presents a new model to cover the current research gap in accurately modeling car–car and car–pedestrian interactions at non-signalized junctions. Specifically, the details of accurately approximating car trajectories at junctions and automated construction, approximating free-flow speed of cars along curved trajectories, and accurately calculating the points of collision and time to collision are presented. As a demonstrative application, we simulated a hypothetical evacuation scenario with non-functioning traffic signals in which different numbers of slow evacuees are allowed to use cars. While the ABM is yet to be thoroughly validated, the presented demonstrative scenarios indicates that a considerable number of the needy can be allowed to use cars for evacuation if their routes and evacuation start time window are well planned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters)
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18 pages, 79009 KiB  
Article
Predictive Simulation for Surface Fault Occurrence Using High-Performance Computing
by Masataka Sawada, Kazumoto Haba and Muneo Hori
GeoHazards 2022, 3(1), 88-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/geohazards3010005 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
Numerical simulations based on continuum mechanics are promising methods for the estimation of surface fault displacements. We developed a parallel finite element method program to perform such simulations and applied the program to reproduce the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, where surface rupture was observed. [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations based on continuum mechanics are promising methods for the estimation of surface fault displacements. We developed a parallel finite element method program to perform such simulations and applied the program to reproduce the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, where surface rupture was observed. We constructed an analysis model of the 5 × 5 × 1 km domain, including primary and secondary faults, and inputted the slip distribution of the primary fault, which was obtained through inversion analysis and the elastic theory of dislocation. The simulated slips on the surface were in good agreement with the observations. We then conducted a predictive simulation by inputting the slip distributions of the primary fault, which were determined using a strong ground motion prediction method for an earthquake with a specified source fault. In this simulation, no surface slip was induced in the sub-faults. A large surface slip area must be established near a sub-fault to induce the occurrence of a slip on the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulation for Earthquake Hazards and Disasters)
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