Combustion and Fire I

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255). This special issue belongs to the section "Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Fire".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 23 January 2025 | Viewed by 5892

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Center of Flow Simulation (CFS), Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences, D-40476 Duesseldorf, Germany
Interests: computational methods; combustion; fire; turbulence; multi-phase flows; environmental flow; fluid machinery; biofluid dynamics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue deals with the research, development and application of mathematical modelling approaches and numerical methods in the field of combustion and fire, covering the whole range of methodologies and applications. The coverage also includes experimental and theoretical approaches, especially as a means of validation and inspiration. This Special Issue is mainly based on selected papers from the conference "International Conference of Computational Heat and Mass Transfer, 4-8 September 2023, Düsseldorf, Germany (ICCHMT2023)” and constitute the main body of this Special Issue. However, submissions of papers that are not related to the conference are equally welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ali Cemal Benim
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • mathematical modeling
  • numerical methods
  • empirical/theoretical models
  • combustion
  • fire
  • experiments and validation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 29506 KiB  
Article
All Lives Matter: A Model for Resource Allocation to Fire Departments in Portugal
by Milad K. Eslamzadeh, António Grilo and Pedro Espadinha-Cruz
Fire 2024, 7(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7060206 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Optimizing Resource Allocation in Fire Departments (RAFD) is crucial for enhancing Fire Protection Services (FPS) and ultimately saving lives. Efficient RAFD ensures that fire departments have the necessary resources to respond effectively to emergencies. This paper presents a method for optimizing RAFD based [...] Read more.
Optimizing Resource Allocation in Fire Departments (RAFD) is crucial for enhancing Fire Protection Services (FPS) and ultimately saving lives. Efficient RAFD ensures that fire departments have the necessary resources to respond effectively to emergencies. This paper presents a method for optimizing RAFD based on performance assessment results, examining its impact on Fire Department (FD) efficiency in Portugal. Evaluating data from 353 FDs, two RAFD optimization methods were assessed: one adhering to Portuguese regulations and constraints, such as budget allocation limitations, and another without such constraints. Integrating a slack-based data envelopment analysis model and mixed-integer linear programming, the study found that incorporating FD efficiency scores in RAFD improved overall efficiency at national, district, and FD levels. While adherence to Portuguese regulations led to balanced resource allocation and a 4% performance improvement at the national level, relaxing constraints yielded an 8% improvement, albeit with potential performance deterioration in some FDs. The detailed budget and efficiency metric analysis provided in this paper offers actionable insights for fire protection services enhancement. This underscores the importance of diverse optimization strategies to enhance FD efficiency, with implications for decision-makers at the Portuguese National Authority for Emergency and Civil Protection and similar organizations globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Fire I)
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21 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Coupling Schemes between the Discrete and the Continuous Phase in the Numerical Simulation of a 60 kWth Swirling Pulverised Solid Fuel Flame under Oxyfuel Conditions
by Hossein Askarizadeh, Stefan Pielsticker, Hendrik Nicolai, Reinhold Kneer, Christian Hasse and Anna Maßmeyer
Fire 2024, 7(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7060185 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Detailed numerical analyses of pulverised solid fuel flames are computationally expensive due to the intricate interplay between chemical reactions, turbulent multiphase flow, and heat transfer. The near-burner region, characterised by a high particle number density, is particularly influenced by these interactions. The accurate [...] Read more.
Detailed numerical analyses of pulverised solid fuel flames are computationally expensive due to the intricate interplay between chemical reactions, turbulent multiphase flow, and heat transfer. The near-burner region, characterised by a high particle number density, is particularly influenced by these interactions. The accurate modelling of these phenomena is crucial for describing flame characteristics. This study examined the reciprocal impact between the discrete phase and the continuous phase using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations. The numerical model was developed in Ansys Fluent and equipped with user-defined functions that adapt the modelling of combustion sub-processes, in particular, devolatilisation, char conversion, and radiative heat transfer under oxyfuel conditions. The aim was to identify the appropriate degree of detail necessary for modelling the interaction between discrete and continuous phases, specifically concerning mass, momentum, energy, and turbulence, to effectively apply it in high-fidelity numerical simulations. The results of the numerical model show good agreement in comparison with experimental data and large-eddy simulations. In terms of the coupling schemes, the results indicate significant reciprocal effects between the discrete and the continuous phases for mass and energy coupling; however, the effect of particles on the gas phase for momentum and turbulence coupling was observed to be negligible. For the investigated chamber, these results are shown to be slightly affected by the local gas phase velocity and temperature fields as long as the global oxygen ratio between the provided and needed amount of oxygen as well as the thermal output of the flame are kept constant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Fire I)
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16 pages, 1284 KiB  
Article
Co-Gasification of Pistachio Shells with Wood Pellets in a Semi-Industrial Hybrid Cross/Updraft Reactor for Producer Gas and Biochar Production
by Jiří Ryšavý, Jakub Čespiva, Lenka Kuboňová, Milan Dej, Katarzyna Szramowiat-Sala, Oleksandr Molchanov, Lukasz Niedzwiecki, Wei-Mon Yan and Sangeetha Thangavel
Fire 2024, 7(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7030087 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The possibilities of pistachio shell biochar production on laboratory-scale gasification and pyrolysis devices have been described by several previous studies. Nevertheless, the broader results of the pistachio shell co-gasification process on pilot-scale units have not yet been properly investigated or reported, especially regarding [...] Read more.
The possibilities of pistachio shell biochar production on laboratory-scale gasification and pyrolysis devices have been described by several previous studies. Nevertheless, the broader results of the pistachio shell co-gasification process on pilot-scale units have not yet been properly investigated or reported, especially regarding the detailed description of the biochar acquired during the routine operation. The biochar was analysed using several analytical techniques, such as ultimate and proximate analysis (62%wt of C), acid–base properties analysis (pH 9.52), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (the presence of –OH bonds and identification of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), Raman spectroscopy (no determination of Id/Ig ratio due to high fluorescence), and nitrogen physisorption (specific surface 50.895 m2·g−1). X-ray fluorescence analysis exhibited the composition of the main compounds in the biochar ash (32.5%wt of Cl and 40.02%wt of Na2O). From the energy generation point of view, the lower heating value of the producer gas achieved 6.53 MJ·m−3 during the co-gasification. The relatively high lower heating value of the producer gas was mainly due to the significant volume fractions of CO (6.5%vol.), CH4 (14.2%vol.), and H2 (4.8 %vol.), while hot gas efficiency accomplished 89.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Fire I)
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19 pages, 4266 KiB  
Article
Timescales Associated with the Evolution of Reactive Scalar Gradient in Premixed Turbulent Combustion: A Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis
by Nilanjan Chakraborty and Cesar Dopazo
Fire 2024, 7(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7030073 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
The fractional change in the reaction progress variable gradient depends on the flow normal straining within the flame and also upon the corresponding normal gradients of the reaction rate and its molecular diffusion transport. The statistical behaviours of the normal strain rate and [...] Read more.
The fractional change in the reaction progress variable gradient depends on the flow normal straining within the flame and also upon the corresponding normal gradients of the reaction rate and its molecular diffusion transport. The statistical behaviours of the normal strain rate and the contributions arising from the normal gradients of the reaction rate and molecular diffusion rate within the flame were analysed by means of a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames ranging from the wrinkled/corrugated flamelets regime to the thin reaction zones regime. The interaction of flame-normal straining with the flame-normal gradient of molecular diffusion rate was found to govern the reactive scalar gradient transport in the preheat zone, where comparable timescales for turbulent straining and molecular diffusion are obtained for small values of Karlovitz numbers. However, the molecular diffusion timescale turns out to be smaller than the turbulent straining timescale for high values of Karlovitz numbers. By contrast, the reaction and hot product zones of the flame remain mostly unaffected by turbulence, and the reactive scalar gradient transport in this zone is determined by the interaction between the flame-normal gradients of molecular diffusion and chemical reaction rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Fire I)
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11 pages, 2468 KiB  
Article
Flame Stabilisation Mechanism for Under-Expanded Hydrogen Jets
by Keiji Takeno, Hikaru Kido, Hiroki Takeda, Shohei Yamamoto, Volodymyr Shentsov, Dmitriy Makarov and Vladimir Molkov
Fire 2024, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire7020048 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
A hydrogen under-expanded jet released from a high-pressure vessel or equipment into the atmosphere through a 0.53 mm diameter orifice results in a sustained lifted flame for pressures above 4 MPa and flame blow-out at pressures below 3 MPa. Knowledge of whether the [...] Read more.
A hydrogen under-expanded jet released from a high-pressure vessel or equipment into the atmosphere through a 0.53 mm diameter orifice results in a sustained lifted flame for pressures above 4 MPa and flame blow-out at pressures below 3 MPa. Knowledge of whether the leaked hydrogen creates a sustained flame or is extinguished is an important issue for safety engineering. This study aims to clarify, in detail, a mechanism of flame stabilisation and blow-out depending on the spouting pressure. The model of flame stabilisation is derived using measurements and observations at the flame base location by means of high-speed schlieren images, laser diagnostics, and electrostatic probe techniques. The sustained stable flame originating from the 0.53 mm orifice is characterised by the existence of the spherical flame structures with a diameter of about 5 to 7 mm that appear one after another at the flame base and outside the streamlines of the hydrogen jet. As the spouting pressure reduces to 3.5 MPa, the sustained lifted flame becomes quasi-steady with higher fluctuations in amplitude of the flame base (lift-off height). In addition to that, flame structures are moving further from the hydrogen jet outlet, with a further decrease of spouting pressure leading to blow-out. The existence of spherical flame formations plays an important role in flame stabilisation. Based on the measurements of OH radicals using the PLIF method and ion currents, multiple flame surfaces were found to be folded in the flame structures. The hydrogen jet generates the vortex-like flow near its outer edge, creating flamelets upon ignition, ultimately forming the observed in the experiments spherical flame structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Fire I)
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