Epigenetic Control in Plants

A topical collection in Epigenomes (ISSN 2075-4655).

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Plant Genomics Group, ITMO University, Lomonosova, 9, 191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2. Department of Plant Embryology & Reproductive Biology, Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, 2 Professor Popov Street, 197376 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Interests: development; sexual and asexual reproduction; genomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are sessile organisms with the capacity to respond to a varying environment throughout their lives. This capability is mediated through the moderation of gene expression without change to DNA sequence, a phenomenon known as epigenetics.  Epigenetic mechanisms thereby mediate developmental progression of an organism and also the resilience to accommodate for change.  Thus, epigenetic regulation in plants can be mediated in several ways, most notably mi RNA- and siRNA-based systems, histone modification and DNA methylation.

On a global scale methylation accumulates during somatic development, although external stimuli can cause either the methylation or demethylation of specific sites. About a third of plant genes are methylated at maturity but meiosis acts as a clearing house for methylation, with only a few methylated sites surviving through to the next generation. Atypical methylation can cause developmental or physiological anomalies.

The aim of this Topic Collection is to bring together a set of reviews and research articles on the role of epigenetic regulation in plants during sexual and asexual reproduction, development, and evolution.

Dr. Vladimir Brukhin
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • epigenetics
  • methylation
  • RNA interference
  • chromatin remodeling
  • plant reproduction
  • development

Published Papers (3 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2021, 2020

19 pages, 740 KiB  
Review
The Genomic Shock Hypothesis: Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of Transposable Elements after Interspecific Hybridization in Plants
by Carlos de Tomás and Carlos M. Vicient
Epigenomes 2024, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes8010002 - 27 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of plant genomes with the ability to change their position in the genome or to create new copies of themselves in other positions in the genome. These can cause gene disruption and large-scale genomic alterations, including inversions, [...] Read more.
Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of plant genomes with the ability to change their position in the genome or to create new copies of themselves in other positions in the genome. These can cause gene disruption and large-scale genomic alterations, including inversions, deletions, and duplications. Host organisms have evolved a set of mechanisms to suppress TE activity and counter the threat that they pose to genome integrity. These includes the epigenetic silencing of TEs mediated by a process of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In most cases, the silencing machinery is very efficient for the vast majority of TEs. However, there are specific circumstances in which TEs can evade such silencing mechanisms, for example, a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses or in vitro culture. Hybridization is also proposed as an inductor of TE proliferation. In fact, the discoverer of the transposons, Barbara McClintock, first hypothesized that interspecific hybridization provides a “genomic shock” that inhibits the TE control mechanisms leading to the mobilization of TEs. However, the studies carried out on this topic have yielded diverse results, showing in some cases a total absence of mobilization or being limited to only some TE families. Here, we review the current knowledge about the impact of interspecific hybridization on TEs in plants and the possible implications of changes in the epigenetic mechanisms. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2020

14 pages, 1608 KiB  
Review
Epigenetic Modifications in Plant Development and Reproduction
by Vladimir Brukhin and Emidio Albertini
Epigenomes 2021, 5(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes5040025 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4806
Abstract
Plants are exposed to highly fluctuating effects of light, temperature, weather conditions, and many other environmental factors throughout their life. As sessile organisms, unlike animals, they are unable to escape, hide, or even change their position. Therefore, the growth and development of plants [...] Read more.
Plants are exposed to highly fluctuating effects of light, temperature, weather conditions, and many other environmental factors throughout their life. As sessile organisms, unlike animals, they are unable to escape, hide, or even change their position. Therefore, the growth and development of plants are largely determined by interaction with the external environment. The success of this interaction depends on the ability of the phenotype plasticity, which is largely determined by epigenetic regulation. In addition to how environmental factors can change the patterns of genes expression, epigenetic regulation determines how genetic expression changes during the differentiation of one cell type into another and how patterns of gene expression are passed from one cell to its descendants. Thus, one genome can generate many ‘epigenomes’. Epigenetic modifications acquire special significance during the formation of gametes and plant reproduction when epigenetic marks are eliminated during meiosis and early embryogenesis and later reappear. However, during asexual plant reproduction, when meiosis is absent or suspended, epigenetic modifications that have arisen in the parental sporophyte can be transmitted to the next clonal generation practically unchanged. In plants that reproduce sexually and asexually, epigenetic variability has different adaptive significance. In asexuals, epigenetic regulation is of particular importance for imparting plasticity to the phenotype when, apart from mutations, the genotype remains unchanged for many generations of individuals. Of particular interest is the question of the possibility of transferring acquired epigenetic memory to future generations and its potential role for natural selection and evolution. All these issues will be discussed to some extent in this review. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2023, 2021

1 pages, 140 KiB  
Editorial
Epigenetic Control in Plants
by Vladimir Brukhin
Epigenomes 2020, 4(3), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4030011 - 1 Jul 2020
Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Epigenetic regulation in plants is an exciting field of research [...] Full article
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