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Thermodynamics Applied in Science of Climate Change

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Thermodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 20880

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, and CEOT, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: physical chemistry; analytical and food chemistry; photochemistry; education; climate change; critical phenomena

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: chemical thermodynamics; phase transitions; percolation transitions; colloid science; molecular theory of liquids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Variations in the Earth’s climate, on all time scales from months to millennia, may be due to natural periodic and chaotic processes or external thermal events, such as modulations of the solar cycles, geothermal volcanic activity, and/or persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. The anthropogenic theory of 20th-century climate change is based upon the hypothesis that a “global average temperature” increase correlates with the atmospheric concentrations of transducer gases such as CO2 or methane (commonly known as “greenhouse gases”) that convert sunlight into enthalpy and entropy. The flimsy historical scientific evidence is fraught with uncertainty and a dearth of conclusive experimental results. Research requires a truly multidisciplinary approach: complex system physics, thermometry, spectroscopy and physical chemistry, classical, statistical, irreversible and non-steady-state thermodynamics, radiation physics, biochemical physics, etc. In this Special Issue, we propose to bring together new peer-reviewed scientifically sound research articles. We will procure articles on theory, experimental, and/or simulation (computer experiments) research in any of the above disciplines that will enable a better scientific description of fluctuations in climates on all time scales. Original research papers containing new science from any discipline that can shed light on the anthropogenic climate change hypothesis, one way or another, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Igor Khmelinskii
Prof. Leslie V. Woodcock
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • meteorology
  • climate change
  • global warming
  • atmospheric thermodynamics
  • non-steady-state thermodynamics
  • maximum entropy production principle
  • greenhouse gas
  • solar radiation
  • geothermal events
  • le Chatellier’s principle

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Residence Time vs. Adjustment Time of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere
by Peter Stallinga
Entropy 2023, 25(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/e25020384 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 11341
Abstract
We study the concepts of residence time vs. adjustment time time for carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The system is analyzed with a two-box first-order model. Using this model, we reach three important conclusions: (1) The adjustment time is never larger than the [...] Read more.
We study the concepts of residence time vs. adjustment time time for carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The system is analyzed with a two-box first-order model. Using this model, we reach three important conclusions: (1) The adjustment time is never larger than the residence time and can, thus, not be longer than about 5 years. (2) The idea of the atmosphere being stable at 280 ppm in pre-industrial times is untenable. (3) Nearly 90% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide has already been removed from the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics Applied in Science of Climate Change)
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18 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Analysis of Climate Change
by Nabil Hazzaa Swedan
Entropy 2023, 25(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/e25010072 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
The climate change assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change is based on a radiative forcing methodology, and thermodynamic analysis of the climate does not appear to be utilized. Although equivalent to the radiative model, the thermodynamic model captures details of thermodynamic [...] Read more.
The climate change assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change is based on a radiative forcing methodology, and thermodynamic analysis of the climate does not appear to be utilized. Although equivalent to the radiative model, the thermodynamic model captures details of thermodynamic interactions among the earth’s subsystems. Carbon dioxide emission returns the net chemical energy exchanged with the climate system to the surface of the earth as heat. The heat is equal to the sum of the heat produced by fossil fuels and deforestation minus the heat of surface greening. Accordingly, trends of climate parameters are calculated. Nearly 51.40% of carbon dioxide production has been sequestered by green matter, and surface greening is approximately 3.0% per decade. Through 2020, the heat removed by surface greening has approached 12.84% of the total heat. Deforestation on the other hand has contributed nearly 22.85% of the total heat of carbon conversion to carbon dioxide. The increase in sea and average land surface air temperatures are 0.80 °C and 1.39 °C, respectively. Present annual sea level rise is nearly 3.35 mm, and the calculated reductions in the temperature and geopotential height of the lower stratosphere are about −0.66 °C and −67.24 m per decade, respectively. Unlike natural sequestration of carbon dioxide, artificial sequestration is not a photosynthetic heat sink process and does not appear to be a viable methodology for mitigating climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics Applied in Science of Climate Change)
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21 pages, 6598 KiB  
Article
Global Warming by Geothermal Heat from Fracking: Energy Industry’s Enthalpy Footprints
by Leslie V. Woodcock
Entropy 2022, 24(9), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24091316 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2601
Abstract
Hypothetical dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) air expansion processes in atmosphere climate models that predict global warming cannot be the causal explanation of the experimentally observed mean lapse rate (approx.−6.5 K/km) in the troposphere. The DALR hypothesis violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. [...] Read more.
Hypothetical dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) air expansion processes in atmosphere climate models that predict global warming cannot be the causal explanation of the experimentally observed mean lapse rate (approx.−6.5 K/km) in the troposphere. The DALR hypothesis violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. A corollary of the heat balance revision of climate model predictions is that increasing the atmospheric concentration of a weak molecular transducer, CO2, could only have a net cooling effect, if any, on the biosphere interface temperatures between the lithosphere and atmosphere. The greenhouse-gas hypothesis, moreover, does not withstand scientific scrutiny against the experimental data. The global map of temperature difference contours is heterogeneous with various hotspots localized within specific land areas. There are regional patches of significant increases in time-average temperature differences, (∆<T>) = 3 K+, in a ring around the arctic circle, with similar hotspots in Brazil, South Africa and Madagascar, a 2–3 K band across central Australia, SE Europe centred in Poland, southern China and the Philippines. These global-warming map hotspots coincide with the locations of the most intensive fracking operational regions of the shale gas industry. Regional global warming is caused by an increase in geothermal conductivity following hydraulic fracture operations. The mean lapse rate (d<T>/dz)z at the surface of the lithosphere will decrease slightly in the regions where these operations have enhanced heat transfer. Geothermal heat from induced seismic activity has caused an irreversible increase in enthalpy (H) input into the overall energy balance at these locations. Investigating global warming further, we report the energy industry’s enthalpy outputs from the heat generated by all fuel consumption. We also calculate a global electricity usage enthalpy output. The global warming index, <∆T-biosphere> since 1950, presently +0.875 K, first became non-zero in the early 1970’s around the same time as natural gas usage began and has increased linearly by 0.0175 K/year ever since. Le Chatelier’s principle, applied to the dissipation processes of the biosphere’s ΔH-contours and [CO2] concentrations, helps to explain the global warming statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics Applied in Science of Climate Change)
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16 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Disquisitions Relating to Principles of Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Climate Modelling
by Leslie V. Woodcock
Entropy 2022, 24(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040459 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
We revisit the fundamental principles of thermodynamic equilibrium in relation to heat transfer processes within the Earth’s atmosphere. A knowledge of equilibrium states at ambient temperatures (T) and pressures (p) and deviations for these p-T states due to various transport ‘forces’ and flux [...] Read more.
We revisit the fundamental principles of thermodynamic equilibrium in relation to heat transfer processes within the Earth’s atmosphere. A knowledge of equilibrium states at ambient temperatures (T) and pressures (p) and deviations for these p-T states due to various transport ‘forces’ and flux events give rise to gradients (dT/dz) and (dp/dz) of height z throughout the atmosphere. Fluctuations about these troposphere averages determine weather and climates. Concentric and time-span average values <T> (z, Δt)) and its gradients known as the lapse rate = d < T(z) >/dz have hitherto been assumed in climate models to be determined by a closed, reversible, and adiabatic expansion process against the constant gravitational force of acceleration (g). Thermodynamics tells us nothing about the process mechanisms, but adiabatic-expansion hypothesis is deemed in climate computer models to be convection rather than conduction or radiation. This prevailing climate modelling hypothesis violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. This idealized hypothetical process cannot be the causal explanation of the experimentally observed mean lapse rate (approx.−6.5 K/km) in the troposphere. Rather, the troposphere lapse rate is primarily determined by the radiation heat-transfer processes between black-body or IR emissivity and IR and sunlight absorption. When the effect of transducer gases (H2O and CO2) is added to the Earth’s emission radiation balance in a 1D-2level primitive model, a linear lapse rate is obtained. This rigorous result for a perturbing cooling effect of transducer (‘greenhouse’) gases on an otherwise sunlight-transducer gas-free troposphere has profound implications. One corollary is the conclusion that increasing the concentration of an existing weak transducer, i.e., CO2, could only have a net cooling effect, if any, on the concentric average <T> (z = 0) at sea level and lower troposphere (z < 1 km). A more plausible explanation of global warming is the enthalpy emission ’footprint’ of all fuels, including nuclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics Applied in Science of Climate Change)
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