Special Issue "Experiments/Process/System Modeling/Simulation/Optimization (IC-EPSMSO 2021)"

A special issue of Computation (ISSN 2079-3197). This special issue belongs to the section "Computational Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 9463

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Dear Colleagues,

The 9th International Conference on Experiments/Process/System Modeling/Simulation/Optimization (9th IC-EpsMsO) will be held in Athens, Greece, from 7 to 10 July 2021, at the Titania Hotel in Central Athens. For more information about the conference, please visit the conference website (http://www.epsmso.gr).

Selected papers presented at the conference and included in the conference proceedings will be considered for inclusion in this Special Issue. The authors of the selected papers will be notified by the Conference Chairman, in due time, to submit their papers to this Special Issue of the journal Computation, at the latest by 30 November 2021, if they so wish. Submitted papers could be extended from their conference size to include new results, if any. All submitted papers will undergo the journal’s standard peer-review procedure. Accepted papers will be published in open access format in Computation and collected together in this Special Issue website. The papers accepted for publication will be published free of charge instead of the 1000 CHF standard Article Processing Charge (APC) for this journal.

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Wing in Air Flow and Air–Solid Flow Using Three Different Meshing Techniques and Comparison with Experimental Results in Wind Tunnel
Computation 2022, 10(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10030034 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 996
Abstract
The main purpose of this work is to simulate the flow of air and solid particles over a wildfire and to investigate the single and multiphase flow over the surface of a custom-designed wing with an Eppler-420 airfoil including an appendant custom-designed blended [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this work is to simulate the flow of air and solid particles over a wildfire and to investigate the single and multiphase flow over the surface of a custom-designed wing with an Eppler-420 airfoil including an appendant custom-designed blended winglet. The wing is the result of a conceptual and preliminary design of a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designed to assist in firefighting. The fire embers will be simulated in the Ansys Fluent commercial code as solid particles injected in the continuous phase, in an Euler–Lagrange approach. Primarily studied were the response of the model in air and air–solid flows, as well as the impact on aerodynamic efficiency due to the existence of the second phase. Moreover, the effects of unstructured, structured and mosaic poly-hexcore meshes are investigated and compared. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, were implemented using a pressure-based solver, spatial discretization was conducted with a second-order upwind scheme, and the k-omega SST (k-ω SST) turbulence model was applied. Meanwhile, the two-phase flow was simulated using the Discrete Phase Model with reflect boundary condition on the surface of the wing and two-way coupling between continuous and discrete phase. To validate the results, experiments were conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel using a 3D printed model of the wing. The results show good agreement between simulations and experiments, with the structured mesh coming closer to reality, followed by the mosaic and unstructured meshes, respectively. Finally, a reduction in the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing section is observed, due to the presence of solid particles. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of Computational and Experimental Fluid Dynamics Studies between Scaled and Original Wing Sections, in Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flows, and Evaluation of the Suggested Method
Computation 2022, 10(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10030033 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The correlation between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) is crucial for the behavior prediction of aerodynamic bodies. This paper’s objective is twofold: (1) to develop a method that approaches commercial CFD codes and their link with EFD in a [...] Read more.
The correlation between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) is crucial for the behavior prediction of aerodynamic bodies. This paper’s objective is twofold: (1) to develop a method that approaches commercial CFD codes and their link with EFD in a more efficient way, using a downscaled model, and (2) to investigate the effect of rain on the aerodynamic behavior of a wing. More specifically, we investigate the one-phase and two-phase flow over a typical wing section NACA 641-212 airfoil, in the commercial code Ansys Fluent. Two computational models were developed; the first model represents the original dimensions of the wing, while the second is downscaled to 23% of the original. The response of the models in air and air–water flow were primarily studied, as well as the impact on aerodynamic efficiency due to the existence of the second phase. For the computational fluid dynamics simulations, a pressure-based solver with a second-order upwind scheme for the spatial discretization and the Spalart–Allmaras (SA) turbulence model were utilized. Meanwhile, for the two-phase flow of air–water, the discrete phase model (DPM) with wall–film boundary conditions on the surface of the wing and two-way coupling between continuous and discrete phase was considered. The second phase was simulated as water droplets injected in the continuous phase, in a Euler–Lagrange approach. The experimental model was constructed in accordance with the downscaled model and tested in a subsonic wind tunnel, using 3D printing technology which reduced the experiment expenses. The presence of water in two-phase flow was proven to deteriorate the aerodynamic factors of the wing compared to one-phase flow, as expected. The three-stage comparison of CFD and EFD results showed a very good convergence, in both single and two-phase flow. This can lead to the conclusion that a rapid and low-cost study for the estimation of the aerodynamic performance of objects with high accuracy is feasible with the suggested method. Full article
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Article
A Numerical Approach for Developing a Bearing-Bypass Design Criterion for Sizing Bolted Joints
Computation 2022, 10(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10020016 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Bolted joints are widely used in composite aircraft structures, for their assembly. The appropriate bolted joint configuration (hole/bolt diameter, pitch, etc.) is carefully selected during the detail design phase, where high fidelity numerical models are required with substantial computational cost and time. This [...] Read more.
Bolted joints are widely used in composite aircraft structures, for their assembly. The appropriate bolted joint configuration (hole/bolt diameter, pitch, etc.) is carefully selected during the detail design phase, where high fidelity numerical models are required with substantial computational cost and time. This work presents a design criterion, which allows the selection of the bolted joint configuration during the preliminary design phase with less computational time. The developed design criterion is based on a fully parametric finite element (FE) model, built in ANSYS V19 (Canonsburg, PA, USA), of a bolted joint with progressive damage modelling (PDM) capabilities, so that the failure of the joint can be predicted. From the numerical analyses, the bearing load and the load that bypasses the hole are calculated, up to failure, for a variety of joint configurations and loading conditions. The results of each analysis are used for plotting the failure envelope for the investigated bolted-joint configuration. Consequently, a design criterion is generated for the bolted joint. The availability of these failure envelopes, as design criterion, permit the appropriate selection of the bolted-joint configuration in an earlier design phase saving valuable time and computational cost. Full article
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Article
Computational Analysis of Active and Passive Flow Control for Backward Facing Step
Computation 2022, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10010012 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The internal steady and unsteady flows with a frequency and amplitude are examined through a backward facing step (expansion ratio 2), for low Reynolds numbers (Re=400, Re=800), using the immersed boundary method. A lower [...] Read more.
The internal steady and unsteady flows with a frequency and amplitude are examined through a backward facing step (expansion ratio 2), for low Reynolds numbers (Re=400, Re=800), using the immersed boundary method. A lower part of the backward facing step is oscillating with the same frequency as the unsteady flow. The effect of the frequency, the amplitude, and the length of this oscillation is investigated. By suitable active control regulation, the recirculation lengths are reduced, and, for a percentage of the time period, no upper wall, negative velocity, region occurs. Moreover, substituting the prescriptively moving surface by a pressure responsive homogeneous membrane, the fluid–structure interaction is examined. We show that, by selecting proper values for the membrane parameters, such as membrane tension and applied external pressure, the upper wall flow separation bubble vanishes, while the lower one diminishes significantly in both the steady and the unsteady cases. Furthermore, for the time varying case, the length fluctuation of the lower wall reversed flow region is fairly contracted. The findings of the study have applications at the control of confined and external flows where separation occurs. Full article
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Article
A Physically Consistent Model for Forced Torsional Vibrations of Automotive Driveshafts
Computation 2022, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10010010 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
The aim of this research was to design a physically consistent model for the forced torsional vibrations of automotive driveshafts that considered aspects of the following phenomena: excitation due to the transmission of the combustion engine through the gearbox, excitation due to the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to design a physically consistent model for the forced torsional vibrations of automotive driveshafts that considered aspects of the following phenomena: excitation due to the transmission of the combustion engine through the gearbox, excitation due to the road geometry, the quasi-isometry of the automotive driveshaft, the effect of nonuniformity of the inertial moment with respect to the longitudinal axis of the tulip–tripod joint and of the bowl–balls–inner race joint, the torsional rigidity, and the torsional damping of each joint. To resolve the equations of motion describing the forced torsional nonlinear parametric vibrations of automotive driveshafts, a variational approach that involves Hamilton’s principle was used, which considers the isometric nonuniformity, where it is known that the joints of automotive driveshafts are quasi-isometric in terms of the twist angle, even if, in general, they are considered CVJs (constant velocity joints). This effect realizes the link between the terms for the torsional vibrations between the elements of the driveshaft: tripode–tulip, midshaft, and bowl–balls–inner race joint elements. The induced torsional loads (as gearbox torsional moments that enter the driveshaft through the tulip axis) can be of harmonic type, while the reactive torsional loads (as reactive torsional moments that enter the driveshaft through the bowl axis) are impulsive. These effects induce the resulting nonlinear dynamic behavior. Also considered was the effect of nonuniformity on the axial moment of inertia of the tripod–tulip element as well as on the axial moment of inertia of the bowl–balls–inner race joint element, that vary with the twist angle of each element. This effect induces parametric dynamic behavior. Moreover, the torsional rigidity was taken into consideration, as was the torsional damping for each joint of the driveshaft: tripod–joint and bowl–balls–inner race joint. This approach was used to obtain a system of equations of nonlinear partial derivatives that describes the torsional vibrations of the driveshaft as nonlinear parametric dynamic behavior. This model was used to compute variation in the natural frequencies of torsion in the global tulip (a given imposed geometry) using the angle between the tulip–midshaft for an automotive driveshaft designed for heavy-duty SUVs as well as the characteristic amplitude frequency in the region of principal parametric resonance together the method of harmonic balance for the steady-state forced torsional nonlinear vibration of the driveshaft. This model of dynamic behavior for the driveshaft can be used during the early stages of design as well in predicting the durability of automotive driveshafts. In addition, it is important that this model be added in the design algorithm for predicting the comfort elements of the automotive environment to adequately account for this kind of dynamic behavior that induces excitations in the car structure. Full article
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Article
Cohesive Zone Model Modification Techniques According to the Mesh Size in Finite Element Models of Stiffened Panels with Debonding
Computation 2022, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation10010005 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
When catastrophic failure phenomena in aircraft structures, such as debonding, are numerically analyzed during their design process in the frame of “Damage Tolerance” philosophy, extreme requirements in terms of time and computational resources arise. Here, a decrease in these requirements is achieved by [...] Read more.
When catastrophic failure phenomena in aircraft structures, such as debonding, are numerically analyzed during their design process in the frame of “Damage Tolerance” philosophy, extreme requirements in terms of time and computational resources arise. Here, a decrease in these requirements is achieved by developing a numerical model that efficiently treats the debonding phenomena that occur due to the buckling behavior of composite stiffened panels under compressive loads. The Finite Element (FE) models developed in the ANSYS© software (Canonsburg, PA, USA) are calibrated and validated by using published experimental and numerical results of single-stringer compression specimens (SSCS). Different model features, such as the type of the element used (solid and solid shell) and Cohesive Zone Modeling (CZM) parameters are examined for their impact on the efficiency of the model regarding the accuracy versus computational cost. It is proved that a significant reduction in computational time is achieved, and the accuracy is not compromised when the proposed FE model is adopted. The outcome of the present work leads to guidelines for the development of FE models of stiffened panels, accurately predicting the buckling and post-buckling behavior leading to debonding phenomena, with minimized computational and time cost. The methodology is proved to be a tool for the generation of a universal parametric numerical model for the analysis of debonding phenomena of any stiffened panel configuration by modifying the corresponding geometric, material and damage properties. Full article
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Article
Nonuniformity of Isometric Properties of Automotive Driveshafts
Computation 2021, 9(12), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9120145 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the CVJ (constant velocity joint) of automotive driveshafts from a point of view concerning the nonuniformity of isometric properties. In the automotive industry, driveshafts are considered to have constant velocity through its joints: free tripode joints and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the CVJ (constant velocity joint) of automotive driveshafts from a point of view concerning the nonuniformity of isometric properties. In the automotive industry, driveshafts are considered to have constant velocity through its joints: free tripode joints and fixed ball joints, which has been proved by Mtzner’s indirect method and Orain’s direct method for tripod joint. Based on vectorial mechanics, the paper proved the quasi-isometry of velocity for polypod joints such as fixed ball joints. In the meantime, it was computed that the global nonuniformity of constant velocity joints for modern driveshafts based on the Dudita-Diaconescu homokinetic approach for the driveshafts. The nonuniformity of the velocity isometry of driveshafts was computed as a function of the input angular velocity of the driveshaft, angular inclination between the tripod–tulip axis and the midshaft axis and the angular inclination between the bowl axis and midshaft axis. The main aim of this article is how to improve the geometric and kinematic approach to add an important correction when designing the driveshaft dynamics prediction such as: forced torsional vibrations, forced bending–shearing vibrations, and coupled torsional–bending vibrations for the automotive driveshaft in the regions of specific resonances such as principal parametric resonance, internal resonance, combined resonance, and simultaneous resonances. By the way it is added, there are important corrections for the design of driveshafts, for the torsional dynamic behavior prediction, and for bending–shearing dynamic behavior of the driveshafts in the early stages of design. The results presented in the article represent a starting point for future research on dynamic phenomena in the area mentioned previously. Full article
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Article
A Computational Analysis for Active Flow and Pressure Control Using Moving Roller Peristalsis
Computation 2021, 9(12), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9120144 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Peristaltic motion arises in many physiological, medical, pharmaceutical and industrial processes. Control of the fluid volume rate and pressure is crucial for pumping applications, such as the infusion of intravenous liquid drugs, blood transportation, etc. In this study, a simulation of peristaltic flow [...] Read more.
Peristaltic motion arises in many physiological, medical, pharmaceutical and industrial processes. Control of the fluid volume rate and pressure is crucial for pumping applications, such as the infusion of intravenous liquid drugs, blood transportation, etc. In this study, a simulation of peristaltic flow is presented in which occlusion is imposed by pairs of circular rollers that squeeze a deformable channel connected to a reservoir with constant fluid pressure. Naturally, this kind of flow is laminar; hence, the computation occurred in this context. The effect of the number and speed of the pairs of rollers, as well as that of the intrapair roller gap, is investigated. Non-Newtonian fluids are considered, and the effect of the shear-thinning behavior degree is examined. The volumetric flow rate is found to increase with an increase in the number of rollers or in the relative occlusion. A reduction in the Bird–Carreau power index resulted in a small reduction in transport efficiency. The characteristic of the pumping was computed, i.e., the induced pressure as a function of the fluid volume rate. A strong positive correlation exists between relative occlusion and induced pressure. Shear-thinning behavior significantly decreases the developed pressure compared to Newtonian fluids. The immersed boundary method on curvilinear coordinates is adapted and validated for non-Newtonian fluids. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of a Moisture Diffusion Model for Analyzing the Convective Drying Kinetics of Lavandula x allardii Leaves
Computation 2021, 9(12), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9120141 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
In the present case study, a moisture diffusion model is developed to simulate the drying kinetics of Lavandula x allardii leaves for non-stationary convective drying regimes. Increasing temperature profiles are applied over the drying duration and the influence of temperature advancing rates on [...] Read more.
In the present case study, a moisture diffusion model is developed to simulate the drying kinetics of Lavandula x allardii leaves for non-stationary convective drying regimes. Increasing temperature profiles are applied over the drying duration and the influence of temperature advancing rates on the moisture removal and the drying rate is investigated. The model assumes a one-dimensional moisture transfer under transient conditions, which occurs from the leaf center to the surface by liquid diffusion due to the concentration gradient developed by the surface water evaporation caused by the difference of water vapor partial pressure between the drying medium and the leaf surface. A numerical solution of Fick’s 2nd law is obtained by an in-house code using the finite volume method, including shrinkage and a variable temperature-dependent effective moisture diffusion coefficient. The numerical results have been validated against experimental data for selected cases using statistical indices and the predicted dehydration curves presented a good agreement for the higher temperature advancing rates. The examined modeling approach was found stable and can output, in a computationally efficient way, the temporal changes of moisture and drying rate. Thus, the present model could be used for engineering applications involving the design, optimization and development of drying equipment and drying schedules for the examined type of non-stationary drying patterns. Full article
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Article
Recent Developments of Noise Attenuation Using Acoustic Barriers for a Specific Edge Geometry
Computation 2021, 9(12), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9120129 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The aim of this research is to provide a better prediction for noise attenuation using thin rigid barriers. In particular, the paper presents an analysis on four methods of computing the noise attenuation using acoustic barriers: Maekawa-Tatge formulation, Kurze and Anderson algorithm, Menounou [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to provide a better prediction for noise attenuation using thin rigid barriers. In particular, the paper presents an analysis on four methods of computing the noise attenuation using acoustic barriers: Maekawa-Tatge formulation, Kurze and Anderson algorithm, Menounou formulation, and the general prediction method (GPM-ISO 9613). Accordingly, to improve the GPM, the prediction computation of noise attenuation was optimized for an acoustic barrier by considering new effects, such as attenuation due to geometrical divergence, ground absorption-reflections, and atmospheric absorption. The new method, modified GPM (MGPM), was tested for the optimization of an y-shape edge geometry of the noise barrier and a closed agreement with the experimental data was found in the published literature. The specific y-shape edge geometry of the noise barrier contributes to the attenuation due to the diffraction phenomena. This aspect is based on the Kirchhoff diffraction theory that contains the Huygens-Fresnel theory, which is applied to a semi-infinite acoustic barrier. The new method MGPM of predicting the noise attenuation using acoustic barriers takes into consideration the next phenomena: The effect of the relative position of the receiver, the effect of the proximity of the source or receiver to the midplane of the barrier, the effect of the proximity of the receiver to the shadow boundary, the effect of ground absorption-reflections, the effect of atmospheric absorption, and the meteorological effect due to downwind. The conclusion of the paper reveals the optimization of the method for computing the noise attenuation using acoustic barriers, including the necessary corrections for ISO-9613 and the Sound PLAN software, as well as the optimization on a case study of a specific geometry of the edge barrier. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Stability Enhancement of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System in Stand-Alone Applications
Computation 2021, 9(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation9020014 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Renewable energy systems have been extensively developed and they are attractive to become widespread in the future because they can deliver energy at a competitive price and generally do not cause environmental pollution. However, stand-alone energy systems may not be practical for satisfying [...] Read more.
Renewable energy systems have been extensively developed and they are attractive to become widespread in the future because they can deliver energy at a competitive price and generally do not cause environmental pollution. However, stand-alone energy systems may not be practical for satisfying the electric load demands, especially in places having unsteady wind speeds with high unpredictability. Hybrid energy systems seem to be a more economically feasible alternative to satisfy the energy demands of several isolated clients worldwide. The combination of these systems makes it possible to guarantee the power stability, efficiency, and reliability. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive analysis and to propose a technical solution to integrate a self-excited induction generator in a low power multisource system. Therefore, to avoid the voltage collapsing and the machine demagnetization, the various parameters have to be identified. This procedure allows for the limitation of a safe operating area where the best stability of the machine can be obtained. Hence, the load variation interval is determined. An improvement of the induction generator stability will be analyzed. Simulation results will be validated through experimental tests. Full article
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