Recent Advances in Cancer Stem Cells

A topical collection in Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This collection belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

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Editor


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Collection Editor
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
Interests: basic and translational leukemia research; leukemic stem cell biology; drug resistance; gene regulation and proteome dynamics; oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are shown to be involved in tumour initiation, poor prognosis and metastasis as well as therapy resistance. In this Topic Collection of Biomedicines, our aim is to provide hot information on topics like the mechanisms underpinning CSC biology contributing to tumour heterogeneity and cancer treatment. We invite research and review papers in the broad field of cancer stem cells, including, but not limited to: molecular mechanisms driving CSC plasticity; interaction with tumor microenvironment; immune evasion; cell signaling and therapy resistance related topics.

Dr. Xiaoyan Jiang
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

21 pages, 1570 KiB  
Review
Cancer Stem Cell Relationship with Pro-Tumoral Inflammatory Microenvironment
by Ferenc Sipos and Györgyi Műzes
Biomedicines 2023, 11(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11010189 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Inflammatory processes and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are increasingly recognized as factors in the development of tumors. Emerging evidence indicates that CSCs are associated with cancer properties such as metastasis, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. However, the precise interaction between CSCs and the [...] Read more.
Inflammatory processes and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are increasingly recognized as factors in the development of tumors. Emerging evidence indicates that CSCs are associated with cancer properties such as metastasis, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. However, the precise interaction between CSCs and the immune microenvironment remains unexplored. Although evasion of the immune system by CSCs has been extensively studied, new research demonstrates that CSCs can also control and even profit from the immune response. This review provides an overview of the reciprocal interplay between CSCs and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, collecting pertinent data about how CSCs stimulate leukocyte reprogramming, resulting in pro-tumor immune cells that promote metastasis, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity, and even a rise in the number of CSCs. Tumor-associated macrophages, neutrophils, Th17 and regulatory T cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts, as well as the signaling pathways involved in these pro-tumor activities, are among the immune cells studied. Although cytotoxic leukocytes have the potential to eliminate CSCs, immune evasion mechanisms in CSCs and their clinical implications are also known. We intended to compile experimental findings that provide direct evidence of interactions between CSCs and the immune system and CSCs and the inflammatory milieu. In addition, we aimed to summarize key concepts in order to comprehend the cross-talk between CSCs and the tumor microenvironment as a crucial process for the effective design of anti-CSC therapies. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

17 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Polymer Thin Film Promotes Tumor Spheroid Formation via JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Primed by Fibronectin-Integrin α5 and Sustained by LMO2-LDB1 Complex
by Sunyoung Seo, Nayoung Hong, Junhyuk Song, Dohyeon Kim, Yoonjung Choi, Daeyoup Lee, Sangyong Jon and Hyunggee Kim
Biomedicines 2022, 10(11), 2684; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10112684 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are considered promising targets for anti-cancer therapy owing to their role in tumor progression. Extensive research is, therefore, being carried out on CSCs to identify potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. However, this requires the availability of patient-derived CSCs ex [...] Read more.
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are considered promising targets for anti-cancer therapy owing to their role in tumor progression. Extensive research is, therefore, being carried out on CSCs to identify potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. However, this requires the availability of patient-derived CSCs ex vivo, which remains restricted due to the low availability and diversity of CSCs. To address this limitation, a functional polymer thin-film (PTF) platform was invented to induce the transformation of cancer cells into tumorigenic spheroids. In this study, we demonstrated the functionality of a new PTF, polymer X, using a streamlined production process. Polymer X induced the formation of tumor spheroids with properties of CSCs, as revealed through the upregulated expression of CSC-related genes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in the cancer cells cultured on polymer X was upregulated by the fibronectin-integrin α5-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) axis and maintained by the cytosolic LMO2/LBD1 complex. In addition, STAT3 signaling was critical in spheroid formation on polymer X. Our PTF platform allows the efficient generation of tumor spheroids from cancer cells, thereby overcoming the existing limitations of cancer research. Full article
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Figure 1

29 pages, 1629 KiB  
Review
Properties of Leukemic Stem Cells in Regulating Drug Resistance in Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemias
by Xingjian Zhai and Xiaoyan Jiang
Biomedicines 2022, 10(8), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10081841 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3275
Abstract
Notoriously known for their capacity to reconstitute hematological malignancies in vivo, leukemic stem cells (LSCs) represent key drivers of therapeutic resistance and disease relapse, posing as a major medical dilemma. Despite having low abundance in the bulk leukemic population, LSCs have developed unique [...] Read more.
Notoriously known for their capacity to reconstitute hematological malignancies in vivo, leukemic stem cells (LSCs) represent key drivers of therapeutic resistance and disease relapse, posing as a major medical dilemma. Despite having low abundance in the bulk leukemic population, LSCs have developed unique molecular dependencies and intricate signaling networks to enable self-renewal, quiescence, and drug resistance. To illustrate the multi-dimensional landscape of LSC-mediated leukemogenesis, in this review, we present phenotypical characteristics of LSCs, address the LSC-associated leukemic stromal microenvironment, highlight molecular aberrations that occur in the transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, and metabolome of LSCs, and showcase promising novel therapeutic strategies that potentially target the molecular vulnerabilities of LSCs. Full article
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Figure 1

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