Special Issue "Engineered Nanoparticles—Biomedical Applications, Toxicity and Public Health Issues"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ashok K. Singh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Interests: nanoparticle synthesis; nanomedicine; nanotoxicology; alcoholism; withdrawal syndrome; inflammation; oxidative stress; puerarin; curcumin; neurotoxicity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs), 1–100 nm, at least in one dimension, are synthesized intentionally for commercial use. ENPs consist of diverse carbon-, metal-, and metal oxide and biomaterial-based products, including (i) three-dimensional nanometric structures, such as colloids, fullerenes, dendrimers, and quantum dots; (ii) two-dimensional nanometric fibers, such as nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibrils and nanorods; and (iii) one-dimensional nanometric plates, such as graphene sheet. All ENPs, irrespective of their shape and chemical structure, reveal common size-dependent properties not present in larger bulk particles, possibly because as the size of particles decrease to the nanoscale, their surface area per unit volume increase exponentially, resulting in a shift from core- to surface-based properties. At the nano-range, size reduction results in (i) a transitions from classic mechanics to quantum mechanics due to electron confinement when metals become semi-conductors (quantum dots); (ii) an increase in mechanical adhesion and capillary forces; (iii) a drop in melting point; (iv) increase in tunneling current; (v) blue shift in optical properties; and (vi) superparamagnetic shift. These unique properties of ENPs are being exploited by the industry to design and market new electronic, mechanical, medicinal, environmental, daily use (such as tooth paste), cosmetic, and food products every day.

Unfortunately, the unique physicochemical properties that has exploded their commercial applications also has exponentially increased their toxicity and adverse effects. In general, at equal mass, the biological and toxicological response following exposure to ENPs is greater than for corresponding bulk particles. More importantly, the biological and toxicological effects of ENP correlate more to the size, shape, number of particles and surface functionalization than to the mass (dose). Thus, a dose-response relationship, commonly used in current risk assessment strategies may not characterize health risks of ENPs. The scientific literature cannot yet determine the best parameter to measure ENP exposure since each chemically identical ENP preparation, depending on its size, shape and surface functionalization, may exhibit its own toxicity. Despite risk-uncertainties, thousands of nanoparticle-based household, pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic and food products are currently available, and the list will grow in future. The nanoparticle-based products may represent a serious health risks for workers and consumers both. Therefore, for greater public safety, there is an urgent need to address the biological, toxicological and public safety issues related to the EPNs

In this Special Issue, contributions (original research, review articles, case reports or letters) addressing materials science, medicine, molecular biology, bioinformatics, toxicology (focus on size, shape and surface-property dependence) and public health issues related to the use and development of chemically and structurally diverse ENPs with different surface modifications are invited. The ENPs generated for purposeful food, medicines, diagnostics, prosthetics, cosmetics, electronics and clothing is of greater interest. The key topics include, but not limited to: size-dependent physicochemical, electronic, magnetic, biological, medical and toxicological properties, surface functionalization, green synthesis of nanoparticles, mechanistic toxicity of chemically diverse ENPs, risk assessment approaches, etc.

Dr. Ashok K. Singh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles
  • Biological properties
  • Biomaterial nanoparticles
  • Blue-shift optical properties
  • Carbon nano-dots
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Cosmetics application
  • Dendrimers
  • Dose-response relationship
  • Engineered Nanoparticles (EPNs)
  • Food products containing ENPs
  • Fullerenes
  • Gold and silver colloidal nanoparticles
  • Green synthesis
  • Magnetic nanoparticles

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Amoxicillin on Bacterial Growth in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Carbon
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030055 - 08 Sep 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The impact of emerging contaminants in the presence of active pharmaceutical pollutants plays an important role in the persistence and activity of environmental bacteria. This manuscript focuses on the impact of amoxicillin functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth, in the presence of [...] Read more.
The impact of emerging contaminants in the presence of active pharmaceutical pollutants plays an important role in the persistence and activity of environmental bacteria. This manuscript focuses on the impact of amoxicillin functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth, in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (humic acid). The impact of these emerging contaminants individually and collectively on the growth profiles of model gram positive and negative bacteria was tracked for 24 h. Results indicate exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin bound iron oxide nanoparticles, in the presence of humic acid, increase bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Accelerated bacterial growth was associated with an increase in iron ions, which have been shown to influence upregulation of cellular metabolism. Though iron oxide nanoparticles are often regarded as benign, this work demonstrates the distinguishable impact of amoxicillin bound iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of dissolved organic carbon. The results indicate differential impacts of combined contaminants on bacterial growth, having potential implications for environmental and human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalisation of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on Gold Nanoparticles Enhances Its Anti-Amyloidogenic Propensity towards Hen Egg White Lysozyme
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5020019 - 03 May 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Protein amyloids are characterized by aggregates that usually consist of fibres containing misfolded proteins and having a cross β-sheet conformation. These aggregates can eventually lead to several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The present [...] Read more.
Protein amyloids are characterized by aggregates that usually consist of fibres containing misfolded proteins and having a cross β-sheet conformation. These aggregates can eventually lead to several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The present study describes the effect of chemically synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (PVP-AuNps) on hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) amyloids. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized using various biophysical techniques like Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The aggregation studies showed that PVP acts as a partial inhibitor of HEWL amyloidogenesis. However, when conjugated to gold nanoparticle surface, it leads to complete inhibition of amyloid formation. Apart from inhibition, PVP-conjugated gold nanoparticles also exhibited a significant disaggregation effect on mature amyloids and hence can be exploited as an effective therapeutic agent against hereditary systemic amyloidosis. Full article
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