Mitochondria in Human Health and Diseases

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 1283

Special Issue Editor

Throne Biotechnologies, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA
Interests: cord blood stem cell; type 1 diabetes; autoimmune disease; Stem Cell Educator therapy; immune modulation; mitochondria; exosome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mitochondria, an energy center integrating with other organelles, contribute to a variety of cellular activities and stress responses through their dynamic properties such as fusion, fission and mitophagy, leading to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Recent advances in mitochondrial biology demonstrate that mitochondria not only act as organelles of “a cellular power plant” for ATP production to energize cellular/molecular activities of daily life, but also circulate in human peripheral blood and function as novel mediators involved in the crosstalk among different cells, tissues, and organs in physiological and pathological conditions. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mitochondria dominate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Notably, mitochondria can penetrate the nuclear membrane, leading to cellular reprogramming and the generation of autologous multipotent stem cells. Interestingly, the purified mitochondria display immune modulation on the activated human T cells and the central/effector memory T cells. Therefore, targeting the mitochondrial system may facilitate the clarification of the pathogenesis of different diseases and hold tremendous therapeutic potentials to treat the inflammation-associated diseases, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and others. This Special Issue focuses on recent progress in basic research and clinical studies of mitochondria to facilitate their translational potential in clinics. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to submit insightful reviews and research papers on the topic of mitochondria.

Dr. Yong Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mitochondrial biology
  • stem cells
  • cell growth and differentiation
  • immune cells
  • inflammation
  • autoimmunity
  • diabetes
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • aging
  • clinical trials

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

14 pages, 1639 KiB  
Article
Male and Female Mitochondria Respond Differently after Exercising in Acute Hypoxia
by Ylenia Lai, Francesco Loy, Michela Isola, Roberta Noli, Andrea Rinaldi, Carla Lobina, Romina Vargiu, Flaminia Cesare Marincola and Raffaella Isola
Biomedicines 2023, 11(12), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11123149 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 910
Abstract
The use of hypoxic devices among athletes who train in normobaric hypoxia has become increasingly popular; however, the acute effects on heart and brain metabolism are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the mitochondrial bioenergetics in trained male and female [...] Read more.
The use of hypoxic devices among athletes who train in normobaric hypoxia has become increasingly popular; however, the acute effects on heart and brain metabolism are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the mitochondrial bioenergetics in trained male and female Wistar rats after acute hypoxia training. The experimental plan included exercising for 30 min on a treadmill in a Plexiglas cage connected to a hypoxic generator set at 12.5% O2 or in normoxia. After the exercise, the rats were sacrificed, and their mitochondria were isolated from their brains and hearts. The bioenergetics for each complex of the electron transport chain was tested using a Clark-type electrode. The results showed that following hypoxia training, females experienced impaired oxidative phosphorylation through complex II in heart subsarcolemmal mitochondria, while males had an altered ADP/O in heart interfibrillar mitochondria, without any change in oxidative capacity. No differences from controls were evident in the brain, but an increased electron transport system efficiency was observed with complex I and IV substrates in males. Therefore, the study’s findings suggest that hypoxia training affects the heart mitochondria of females more than males. This raises a cautionary flag for female athletes who use hypoxic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria in Human Health and Diseases)
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