Special Issue "Coastal and Urban Meteorology"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ekaterina Batchvarova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Climate, Atmosphere and Water Research Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (CAWRI - BAS), 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: atmospheric boundary layer; internal boundary layer; coastal, marine, and urban meteorology; air quality and wind energy assessments; climate studies based on remote sensing data
Dr. Sven-Erik Gryning
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Interests: boundary-layer meteorology; meteorological experiments; numerical modeling; remote sensing; urban; coastal and off-shore meteorology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal and urban areas introduce specific complexity in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure due to abrupt changes in surface physical properties, leading to complex exchange processes of energy, material, and momentum between earth and atmosphere. A number of studies in recent years have been devoted to observations and modeling of flow, atmospheric dispersion, and the specific exchange processes and ABL complexity in coastal and urban areas, and hence in coastal cities. This SI aims to collect articles on the topic in order to advance the understanding and modeling of the specific physical processes in coastal and urban areas. The new observation data and analysis may contribute to further development of meteorological models on meso and local scales.

The complex structure of coastal and urban ABL, related to the development and interactions between internal boundary layers when the air flow passes over a surface with new characteristics, is also important for specific applications such as air quality, wind energy, urban planning, human comfort, and health conditions. A vast area of new studies and observations have during recent years been related to air pollution from marine traffic, a problem typical for big coastal cities with harbors.

Inland cities are characterized with specific thermal and flow conditions which define the urban heat island (UHI) of significant intensity and reduced ventilation, or transport of air pollution from industry placed once in the outskirts in the past.

All listed and more detailed features of coastal and urban meteorology can be better captured by the parametrizations in weather and climate models, which can now be improved based on ground based remote sensing technologies.

In this SI on “Coastal and Urban”, we invite colleagues to present their studies on the abovementioned features, models, applications, and observations in order to form a contemporary view on the topic.

Dr. Ekaterina Batchvarova
Dr. Sven-Erik Gryning
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • coastal meteorology
  • local circulation
  • internal boundary layer
  • urban meteorology
  • urban heat island
  • urban air quality
  • remote sensing observations
  • meteorological experiments in coastal and urban areas
  • air quality in coastal cities
  • parametrization of surface-atmosphere exchange processes
  • mesoscale meteorological modeling over coastal and urban areas

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Wind Speed Profile Statistics from Acoustic Soundings at a Black Sea Coastal Site
Atmosphere 2021, 12(9), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091122 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
More than seven years of remote sensing data with high spatial and temporal resolution were investigated in this study. The 20-min moving averaged wind profiles form the acoustic sounding with Scintec MFAS sodar were derived every 10 min. The profiles covered from 30 [...] Read more.
More than seven years of remote sensing data with high spatial and temporal resolution were investigated in this study. The 20-min moving averaged wind profiles form the acoustic sounding with Scintec MFAS sodar were derived every 10 min. The profiles covered from 30 to 600 m height with vertical resolution of 10 m. The wind speed probability and the Weibull distribution parameters were calculated by the maximum likelihood method at each level and then the profiles of the Weibull scale and shape parameters were analyzed. Diurnal wind speed at heights above 200 m has shown a well-expressed increase in the averaged values during the night hours, while during the day lower wind speeds were observed. The reversal height was explored from spatially and temporally homogenized diurnal wind speed data with applied quadratic functions for better interpretation of the results. In addition, analyses by type of air masses (land or sea air mass) were performed. One of the outcomes of the study was assessment of the internal boundary layer height, which was estimated to 50–80 m at the location of the sodar. The obtained information forms the basis for climatological insights on the vertical structure of the coastal boundary layer and is unique long-term data set important not only for Bulgaria but for coastal meteorology in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal and Urban Meteorology)
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Article
Urban-Induced Changes on Local Circulation in Complex Terrain: Central Mexico Basin
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070904 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Land use land cover (LULC) significantly impacts local circulation in the Mexico Basin, particularly wind field circulations such as gap winds, convergence lines, and thermally induced upslope/downslope wind. A case study with a high-pressure system over the Mexico Basin isolates the influence of [...] Read more.
Land use land cover (LULC) significantly impacts local circulation in the Mexico Basin, particularly wind field circulations such as gap winds, convergence lines, and thermally induced upslope/downslope wind. A case study with a high-pressure system over the Mexico Basin isolates the influence of large-scale synoptic forcing. Numerical simulations reveal a wind system composed of meridional circulation and a zonal component. Thermal pressure gradients between the Mexico basin and its colder surroundings create near-surface convergence lines as part of the meridional circulation. Experiments show that the intensity and organization of meridional circulations and downslope winds increase when LULC changes from natural and cultivated land to urban. Zonal circulation exhibits a typical circulation pattern with the upslope flow and descending motion in the middle of the basin. Large values of moist static energy are near the surface where air parcels pick up energy from the surface either as fluxes of enthalpy or latent heat. Surface heat fluxes and stored energy in the ground are drivers of local circulation, which is more evident in zonal circulation patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal and Urban Meteorology)
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