Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Marine Warm Clouds

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 1431

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2. Chemical Sciences Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Interests: aerosol-cloud interactions; marine low clouds; satellite remote sensing; aerosol indirect effects
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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
2. Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: aerosol-cloud interactions; fog and low clouds; air pollution; satellite remote sensing; machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Leipzig Institute for Meteorology, Leipzig University, 04109 Leipzig, Germany
Interests: aerosol-cloud interactions; aerosol indirect effects; satellite remote sensing; low clouds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine warm clouds are found ubiquitously over global oceans. They cool the Earth effectively by reflecting a significant portion of the incoming solar radiation that would otherwise (in the absence of these clouds) be largely absorbed by the dark ocean (∼94%), serving as key climate regulators. Tiny particles in the atmosphere (aerosols), serving as cloud condensation nuclei, govern the micro- and macrophysical properties of marine warm clouds. An increase in aerosol loading leads to increased cloud droplet number concentration and reduced droplet sizes (the Twomey effect). Subsequently affected by these microphysical changes are processes that modulate cloud macrophysical properties, e.g., cloud-top entrainment, evaporation, and precipitation. Quantifying these adjustments in cloud macrophysical properties remains challenging due to their dependence on spatiotemporal scales and co-varying meteorological conditions, resulting in persistent uncertainties in estimating effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–cloud interactions.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide recent advances towards better understanding and quantification of aerosol–warm cloud interactions at various spatiotemporal scales and environmental conditions, as well as their impact on the regional and global climate. Original research studies, reviews, and perspective articles on the topic of aerosol–cloud interactions are all encouraged. We invite and welcome studies at all scales, from laboratory to field work and from regional investigations to global assessments, using all kinds of approaches, from in situ and remote sensing observations to modelling and machine learning approaches.

Dr. Jianhao Zhang
Dr. Hendrik Andersen
Dr. Tom Goren
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aerosol-cloud interactions
  • aerosol indirect effects
  • twomey effect
  • cloud macrophysical adjustments
  • marine boundary layer clouds
  • satellite remote sensing
  • large-eddy simulation
  • machine learning
  • cloud modeling
  • marine cloud brightening
  • geoengineering
  • climate intervention

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 8795 KiB  
Article
How Cloud Droplet Number Concentration Impacts Liquid Water Path and Precipitation in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds—A Satellite-Based Analysis Using Explainable Machine Learning
by Lukas Zipfel, Hendrik Andersen, Daniel Peter Grosvenor and Jan Cermak
Atmosphere 2024, 15(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15050596 - 14 May 2024
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Abstract
Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions (ACI) are a known major cause of uncertainties in simulations of the future climate. An improved understanding of the in-cloud processes accompanying ACI could help in advancing their implementation in global climate models. This is especially the case for marine stratocumulus [...] Read more.
Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions (ACI) are a known major cause of uncertainties in simulations of the future climate. An improved understanding of the in-cloud processes accompanying ACI could help in advancing their implementation in global climate models. This is especially the case for marine stratocumulus clouds, which constitute the most common cloud type globally. In this work, a dataset composed of satellite observations and reanalysis data is used in explainable machine learning models to analyze the relationship between the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), cloud liquid water path (LWP), and the fraction of precipitating clouds (PF) in five distinct marine stratocumulus regions. This framework makes use of Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) values, allowing to isolate the impact of Nd from other confounding factors, which proved to be very difficult in previous satellite-based studies. All regions display a decrease of PF and an increase in LWP with increasing Nd, despite marked inter-regional differences in the distribution of Nd. Polluted (high Nd) conditions are characterized by an increase of 12 gm−2 in LWP and a decrease of 0.13 in PF on average when compared to pristine (low Nd) conditions. The negative Nd–PF relationship is stronger in high LWP conditions, while the positive Nd–LWP relationship is amplified in precipitating clouds. These findings indicate that precipitation suppression plays an important role in MSC adjusting to aerosol-driven perturbations in Nd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Marine Warm Clouds)
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14 pages, 10136 KiB  
Article
Marine Stratus—A Boundary-Layer Model
by Peter A. Taylor
Atmosphere 2024, 15(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15050585 - 11 May 2024
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Abstract
A relatively simple 1D RANS model of the time evolution of the planetary boundary layer is extended to include water vapor and cloud droplets plus transfers between them. Radiative fluxes and flux divergence are also included. An underlying ocean surface is treated as [...] Read more.
A relatively simple 1D RANS model of the time evolution of the planetary boundary layer is extended to include water vapor and cloud droplets plus transfers between them. Radiative fluxes and flux divergence are also included. An underlying ocean surface is treated as a source of water vapor and as a sink for cloud or fog droplets. With a constant sea surface temperature and a steady wind, initially dry or relatively dry air will moisten, starting at the surface. Turbulent boundary layer mixing will then lead towards a layer with a well-mixed potential temperature (and so temperature decreasing with height) and well-mixed water vapor mixing ratio. As a result, the air will, sooner or later, become saturated at some level, and a stratus cloud will form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Marine Warm Clouds)
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