Special Issue "Tornadoes in Europe: Climatology, Forecasting, and Impact"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Bogdan Antonescu
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
National Institute of R&D for Optoelectronics, Romania
Interests: convective storms; tornadoes; mesoscale meteorology; remote sensing; radar meteorology; history of meteorology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tornadoes, some of nature’s most violent and spectacular weather phenomena, are not considered to be a threat to Europe. The general public often assumes that tornadoes do not occur in Europe, and if they are observed they are considered to be less frequent and weak compared with tornadoes from the United States. This opinion is shared even by researchers and meteorologists despite the long history of tornado observations in Europe and even though some of the European tornadoes were associated with damages, injuries, and even fatalities.  Very few European countries have maintained and developed tornado databases and even fewer have issued or are currently issuing tornado warnings. This has led to an underestimation of the tornado threat to Europe, despite the recent interest in this type of severe weather phenomena. Thus, without a systematic collection and verification of tornado reports in Europe, without an understanding of their climatology and societal and economic impact, without programs to support tornado forecasting and warnings, and without measures to reduce their vulnerability, the tornado threat will continue to be underestimated in Europe.

To better understand tornadoes and their threat to Europe, we invite you to contribute to this Special Issue with original and review articles about the observation, numerical simulation, forecasting, and impact of European tornadoes. Solicited contributions may include, but are not limited to local tornado climatologies, high-resolution numerical simulation of high-impact events, overviews of tornado environments, tornado damage surveys, social and economic impacts of tornadoes, future climate change impacts on tornadoes, and forecasting and nowcasting of tornadoes. Risk modeling studies and seasonal tornado forecasting are also encouraged.

Dr. Bogdan Antonescu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tornadoes
  • Tornado climatology
  • Numerical simulation of tornadoes
  • Tornado environments
  • Tornado forecasting
  • Societal and economic impact of tornadoes

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Climatology of Significant Tornadoes in the Czech Republic
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070689 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
In the Czech Republic, tornadoes may reach an intensity of F2 and F3 on the Fujita scale, causing “considerable” to “severe” damage. Documentary evidence is sufficient to allow the creation of a chronology of such events, from the earliest recorded occurrence in 1119 [...] Read more.
In the Czech Republic, tornadoes may reach an intensity of F2 and F3 on the Fujita scale, causing “considerable” to “severe” damage. Documentary evidence is sufficient to allow the creation of a chronology of such events, from the earliest recorded occurrence in 1119 CE (Common Era) to 2019, including a total of 108 proven or probable significant tornadoes on 90 separate days. Since only 11 significant tornadoes were documented before 1800, this basic analysis centers around the 1811–2019 period, during which 97 tornadoes were recorded. Their frequency of occurrence was at its highest in the 1921–1930, 1931–1940, and 2001–2010 decades. In terms of annual variations, they took place most frequently in July, June, and August (in order of frequency), while daily variation favored the afternoon and early evening hours. Conservative estimates of human casualties mention 8 fatalities and over 95 people injured. The most frequent types of damage were related to buildings, individual trees, and forests. Tornadoes of F2–F3 intensity were particularly associated with synoptic types characterized by airflow from the western quadrant together with troughs of low pressure extending or advancing over central Europe. Based on parameters calculated from the ERA-5 re-analysis for the period of 1979–2018, most of these tornadoes occurred over a wide range of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values and moderate-to-strong vertical wind shear. The discussion herein also addresses uncertainties in tornado selection from documentary data, the broader context of Czech significant tornadoes, and the environmental conditions surrounding their origins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tornadoes in Europe: Climatology, Forecasting, and Impact)
Open AccessArticle
Tornadoes in Portugal: An Overview
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070679 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
From 2000 onwards, a systematic documentation of tornado reports was maintained at the Portuguese Meteorological Service (IPMA). The characteristics of 195 tornado events over land and at sea off the coast of mainland Portugal, Azores, and Madeira Islands, reported until 2020, were compiled [...] Read more.
From 2000 onwards, a systematic documentation of tornado reports was maintained at the Portuguese Meteorological Service (IPMA). The characteristics of 195 tornado events over land and at sea off the coast of mainland Portugal, Azores, and Madeira Islands, reported until 2020, were compiled into a new tornado database for Portugal. Each event was identified through the direct observation of the vortex, photography or video footage, or eyewitness descriptions, as well as by site surveys, including the interpretation of traces of the tornado found on the ground. For events after 2006, each data record was complemented with Doppler radar observations and derived products, which allowed a tornado type (TT) classification. The synoptic regimes and atmospheric environments favoring each type were identified using observations and numerical weather prediction model data. Results showed that tornadoes over Portugal were more frequent during autumn, winter, and spring. It was found that the occurrence of more than one tornado on the same day was frequent. The most intense tornadoes, classified as F3 intensity, were spawned by supercells, but a large proportion of weaker, shorter-lived, but still damaging tornadoes were found to be spawned in association with quasi linear convective systems (QLCS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tornadoes in Europe: Climatology, Forecasting, and Impact)
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