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Grasses, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 6 articles

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15 pages, 1914 KiB  
Article
Forage Biomass Estimated with a Pre-Calibrated Equation of a Rising Platemeter in Pastures Grown in Tropical Conditions
by Luis Alonso Villalobos-Villalobos and Rodolfo WingChing-Jones
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 127-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020011 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Accurate estimates of forage biomass allow for better adjustments of stocking rate, carrying capacity, and dry matter intake in livestock operations. Among the most common methods to estimate biomass are platemeters, for which specific calibration equations have been developed for temperate conditions. However, [...] Read more.
Accurate estimates of forage biomass allow for better adjustments of stocking rate, carrying capacity, and dry matter intake in livestock operations. Among the most common methods to estimate biomass are platemeters, for which specific calibration equations have been developed for temperate conditions. However, platemeters are not commonly used in tropical livestock operations where their goodness of fit to estimate forage biomass remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to compare three methods (the rising platemeter, Botanal®, and hand-clipping) to estimate forage biomass throughout one year on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus), and African stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst) pastures in Costa Rica. Estimates of forage biomass were consistently greater with the platemeter than with the Botanal® and clippings across the three grass species evaluated. In Ryegrass pastures, the residual standard deviation (1845 kg DM ha−1) of forage biomass estimated with the platemeter was two- and four-fold with respect to Stargrass and Kikuyu pastures (935 and 447 kg DM ha−1), respectively. Although platemeters are straightforward methods for biomass estimation in pastures, our data suggest that their use and implementation in tropical pastures may lead to overestimating indicators such as stocking rate and carrying capacity. We suggest developing calibration equations specific for tropical conditions that consider our findings as an input to adjust the sampling procedure necessary to improve the accuracy of platemeters and foster greater adoption among livestock producers. Full article
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15 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Repeatability and Reliability of NIRS to Predict Nutritional Values and to Evaluate Two Lignin Methods in Urochloa spp. Grasses
by Iuli Caetano da Silva Brandão Guimarães, Thiago Henrique da Silva, Cristina Cirino Picchi and Romualdo Shigueo Fukushima
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 112-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020010 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Reliable forage analysis is crucial for proper ration formulation of ruminant herds. Through its fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive procedures, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a valuable method for forage evaluating. Notwithstanding, NIRS needs calibration before routine analysis. In addition, to evaluate the best [...] Read more.
Reliable forage analysis is crucial for proper ration formulation of ruminant herds. Through its fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive procedures, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a valuable method for forage evaluating. Notwithstanding, NIRS needs calibration before routine analysis. In addition, to evaluate the best method for lignin quantification in Urochloa spp. grasses is crucial under a digestibility perspective in grass-fed ruminant production. The aims of this study were to use 149 samples from different Urochloa species to develop NIRS calibration curves (partial least squares regressions) for acid detergent lignin (ADL), acetyl bromide lignin (ABL), as well as for ash, cell wall (CW), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD), and in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD). Moreover, the aim of this study was to correlate the in vitro digestibility with lignin quantification methods: ADL and ABL. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed potential for the quantification of Urochloa spp. properties, such as lignin contents (ADL and ABL) and ash, CW, NDF, ADF, IVDMD, and IVNDFD. However, calibrations performed using NIRS to measure ADF, ADL, IVDMD, and IVNDFD need to be thought about with caution before their utilization as a routine analysis for determining the potential for nutrient measurement and digestibility of Urochloa spp. grasses. In addition, the ABL method used for lignin quantification was better correlated with IVDMD and IVNDFD than the ADL method. Full article
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14 pages, 3733 KiB  
Article
Structure and Phenology of Herbaceous Stratum in the Sahelian Rangelands of Senegal
by Ousmane Diatta, Daouda Ngom, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sékouna Diatta and Simon Taugourdeau
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 98-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020009 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This study describes the structure and phenology of Sahelian rangelands during the rainy season. It was undertaken on a grazed plot and a fenced plot. Measurements were taken every 10 days over two rainy seasons between July and October 2018 and between August [...] Read more.
This study describes the structure and phenology of Sahelian rangelands during the rainy season. It was undertaken on a grazed plot and a fenced plot. Measurements were taken every 10 days over two rainy seasons between July and October 2018 and between August and October 2019. The measurements included the phenological stage, the vegetative and flowering height, the coverage, and the phytomass. The results showed that phytomass did not systematically differ between grazed and fenced plots. Flowering started as early as mid-July, but most of the plants flowered in early October. Flowering and fruiting occurred earlier (based on the number of days after the first rain) in the late rainy season (2019) than in the early one (2018). These stages reached their peak in October; senescence began in October. Vegetative height, reproductive height, and coverage were similar between the two years. Height peaks were similar, but they were reached earlier (based on the number of days after the first rain) in the late rainy season than in the early one. Coverage peaks were similar (59.8% in the early rainy season vs. 65.8% in the late one). Vegetative height (around 30 cm), reproductive height (around 36 cm), and coverage (around 60%) reached their maximum in October, but reproductive height was greater than vegetative height. These parameters were lower at the grazed site compared to the fenced site, and flowering started earlier at the grazed site. The pasture had a negative impact on coverage, height, and early flowering. Structure and phenology were more sensitive than to changes in rainfall between years. Phenology results will help determine the best time to harvest the phytomass (phytomass stock), as the nutritional quality of the forage is known to decrease after fruiting. Full article
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20 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Fertilizer Sources and Site Location on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Creeping Bentgrass Putting Greens and Kentucky Bluegrass Roughs
by Katy E. Chapman and Kristina S. Walker
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 78-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020008 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Understanding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from turfgrass allows managers to make cultural management decisions to reduce GHG emissions. The objective of this study was to evaluate fertilizer source [urea (URE), polymer-encapsulated urea (POL), and milorganite (MIL)] and site location (green, wet rough, and [...] Read more.
Understanding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from turfgrass allows managers to make cultural management decisions to reduce GHG emissions. The objective of this study was to evaluate fertilizer source [urea (URE), polymer-encapsulated urea (POL), and milorganite (MIL)] and site location (green, wet rough, and dry rough) on GHG [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)] emissions. Greenhouse gas data, soil temperature, soil moisture, canopy greenness, and turfgrass quality were collected. High soil temperature and moisture were correlated with soil CO2 and N2O flux. The wet rough fluxed more soil CH4 across the 2-year study. The POL fluxed the highest amount of soil CO2, while POL and MIL fluxed the largest amount of soil N2O on the wet rough. Milorganite and POL increased canopy greenness in both roughs during the spring. On the green, URE produced greater canopy greenness in the spring and fall. Our results indicate that when soil moisture and temperature are high, turfgrass managers should employ methods of reducing soil temperatures that do not increase soil moisture to reduce GHG emissions. Under warm and wet conditions, gaseous losses of GHGs are accelerated with slow-release fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Turfgrass Management)
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10 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Characterisation and Recovery of Minerals in Silages of Sorghum IPA 2502 Irigated with Different Leaching Fractions of Brackish Water
by Fleming Sena Campos, Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo, Welson Lima Simões, Thieres George Freire da Silva, Miguel Júlio Machado Guimarães, Cleyton de Almeida Araújo, Amélia de Macedo, Getúlio Figueiredo de Oliveira, Tiago Santos Silva, Anderson de Moura Zanine, Daniele de Jesus Ferreira, Hactus Souto Cavalcanti and Glayciane Costa Gois
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 68-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020007 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and recovery of minerals in silages of sorghum cv. IPA 2502 irrigated with different leaching fractions of brackish water. Sorghum cultivation was carried out in the field in a randomised block design, with [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and recovery of minerals in silages of sorghum cv. IPA 2502 irrigated with different leaching fractions of brackish water. Sorghum cultivation was carried out in the field in a randomised block design, with four replications and four irrigation leaching fractions (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). From the harvested plant material, five silos per treatment, with five repetitions, were arranged in a completely randomised design for ensiling. Leaching fractions did not alter the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur in sorghum. The sodium content showed a quadratic response to the leaching fractions, which was also observed for iron, manganese, and chloride. In silage, an increasing linear effect was found for nitrogen, whereas for phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur, the contents were reduced with the addition of the leaching fraction. The contents of copper, iron, zinc, and chloride in silages responded in a quadratic way. The use of brackish water, especially the 15% leaching fraction, in the cultivation of sorghum enhances the mineral contents and the recovery of some macro- and micro-nutrients after the ensiling process. Full article
11 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Changes in the Prediction Accuracy of Hayfield Productivity Using Sentinel-2 Remote-Sensing Data in Hokkaido, Japan
by Ruka Kiyama and Yoshitaka Uchida
Grasses 2023, 2(2), 57-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/grasses2020006 - 7 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1625
Abstract
In large hayfields belonging to intensive dairy systems, satellite remote-sensing data can be useful to determine the hayfield yield and quality efficiently. In this study, we compared the land survey data of hayfield yield, and its quality parameters such as crude protein and [...] Read more.
In large hayfields belonging to intensive dairy systems, satellite remote-sensing data can be useful to determine the hayfield yield and quality efficiently. In this study, we compared the land survey data of hayfield yield, and its quality parameters such as crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDF), with the Sentinel-2 satellite image data for thirteen hayfield paddocks in Kamishihoro region, Hokkaido, Japan. Commonly used indices derived from the satellite image data, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), were used to assess the hayfield yield and quality. In this region, hayfields are usually harvested twice yearly, in early summer (first harvest) and late summer (second harvest). As result, the Sentinel-2 data could predict the pasture growth and quality for the first harvest better than those for the second harvest. The EVI and the index based on the bands B8a and B7 were the best predictors for the biomass and NDF for the first harvest, respectively. However, the satellite-image-based predictors were not found for the second harvest. Towards the second harvest season, the color of the hayfield surface became more heterogeneous because of the flowering of weeds and uneven pasture growth, which made it challenging to predict pasture growth based on the remote-sensing data. Our land survey approach (quadrat-based sampling from a small area) should also be improved to compare the remote-sensing data and the pasture with uneven growth. Full article
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