Many scientific fields show great interest in the extraction and processing of spatiotemporal data, such as medicine with an emphasis on epidemiology and neurology, geology, social sciences, meteorology, and a great interest is also observed in the study of transport. Spatiotemporal data differ
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Many scientific fields show great interest in the extraction and processing of spatiotemporal data, such as medicine with an emphasis on epidemiology and neurology, geology, social sciences, meteorology, and a great interest is also observed in the study of transport. Spatiotemporal data differ significantly from spatial data, since spatiotemporal data refer to measurements, which take into account both the place and the time in which they are received, with their respective characteristics, while spatial data refer to and describe information related only to place. The innovation brought about by spatiotemporal data mining has caused a revolution in many scientific fields, and this is because through it we can now provide solutions and answers to complex problems, as well as provide useful and valuable predictions, through predictive learning. However, combining time and place in data mining presents significant challenges and difficulties that must be overcome. Spatiotemporal data mining and analysis is a relatively new approach to data mining which has been studied more systematically in the last decade. The purpose of this article is to provide a good introduction to spatiotemporal data, and through this detailed description, we attempt to introduce descriptive logic and gain a complete knowledge of these data. We aim to introduce a new way of describing them, aiming for future studies, by combining the expressions that arise by type of data, using descriptive logic, with new expressions, that can be derived, to describe future states of objects and environments with great precision, providing accurate predictions. In order to highlight the value of spatiotemporal data, we proceed to give a brief description of ST data in the introduction. We describe the relevant work carried out to date, the types of spatiotemporal (ST) data, their properties and the transformations that can be made between them, attempting, to a small extent, to introduce constraints and rules using descriptive logic, introducing descriptive logic into spatiotemporal data by type, when initially presenting the ST data. The data snapshots by species and similarities between the cases are then described. We describe methods, introducing clustering, dynamic ST clusters, predictive learning, pattern mining frequency, and pattern emergence, and problems such as anomaly detection, identifying time points of changes in the behavior of the observed object, and development of relationships between them. We describe the application of ST data in various fields today, as well as the future work. We finally conclude with our conclusions, with the representation and study of spatiotemporal data can, in combination with other properties which accompany all natural phenomena, through their appropriate processing, lead to safe conclusions regarding the study of problems, and also with great precision in the extraction of predictions by accurately determining future states of an environment or an object. Thus, the importance of ST data makes them particularly valuable today in various scientific fields, and their extraction is a particularly demanding challenge for the future.