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Architecture, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 7 articles

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36 pages, 29154 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Extreme Precipitation under Climate Change over Gandaki Province, Nepal
by Sudip Pandey and Binaya Kumar Mishra
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 724-759; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040039 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
This paper presents a research study of expected precipitation extremes across the Gandaki Province, Nepal. The study used five indices to assess extreme precipitation under climate change. Precipitation output of two Global Climate Models (GCMs) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Six (CMIP6) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a research study of expected precipitation extremes across the Gandaki Province, Nepal. The study used five indices to assess extreme precipitation under climate change. Precipitation output of two Global Climate Models (GCMs) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Six (CMIP6) were used to characterize the future precipitation extremes during the rainfall season from June to September (JJAS) and overall days of the year. To characterize extreme precipitation events, we used daily precipitation under the SSP2–4.5 and SSP5–8.5 scenarios from the Beijing Climate Center and China Meteorological Administration, China; and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan. Considering large uncertainties with GCM outputs and different downscaling (including bias correction) methods, direct use of GCM outputs were made to find change in precipitation pattern for future climate. For 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-year return periods, observed and projected 24 h and 72 h annual maximum time series were used to calculate the return level. The result showed an increase in simple daily intensity index (SDII) in the near future (2021–2040) and far future (2081–2100), with respect to the base-year (1995–2014). Similarly, heavy precipitation days (R50 mm), very heavy precipitation days (R100 mm), annual daily maximum precipitation (RX1day), and annual three-day maximum precipitation (RX3day) indices demonstrated an increase in extreme precipitation toward the end of the 21st century. A comparison of R50 mm and R100 mm values showed an extensive (22.6% and 63.8%) increase in extreme precipitation days in the near future and far future. Excessive precipitation was forecasted over Kaski, Nawalparasi East, Syangja, and the western half of the Tanahun region. The expected increase in extreme precipitation may pose a severe threat to the long-term viability of social infrastructure, as well as environmental health. The findings of these studies will provide an opportunity to better understand the origins of severe events and the ability of CMIP6 model outputs to estimate anticipated changes. More research into the underlying physical factors that modulate the occurrence of extreme incidences expected for relevant policies is suggested. Full article
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13 pages, 271 KiB  
Editorial
Participation: A Disciplinary Border for Architectural Research and Practice
by Yaprak Hamarat, Clémentine Schelings and Catherine Elsen
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 711-723; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040038 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
This editorial note provides an extended summary and transversal analysis of ten articles gathered for the 2022 Special Issue on participation in contemporary architecture. The call for contribution circulated in June 2021 attracted papers from Central Europe (n = 8) and North America [...] Read more.
This editorial note provides an extended summary and transversal analysis of ten articles gathered for the 2022 Special Issue on participation in contemporary architecture. The call for contribution circulated in June 2021 attracted papers from Central Europe (n = 8) and North America (n = 2), and presents an overview of ongoing practices and research in participatory architecture in these areas. The Special Issue aimed to study the connections between disciplines and gathered nine empirical cases and one literature review. In this editorial note, we first analyze these contributions to better understand the nature of architecture in participating in the profiles of end-users and project teams, and the scale of the projects. Secondly, we highlight four lessons taken from these practices and studies: we emphasize how participation in architecture (1) emerges and operates in interstitial spaces; (2) often deployed for and with “vulnerable” end-user groups, this “vulnerability” provides power and originality to processes and outcomes; (3) inspirational principles, guides, and frameworks are produced as outcomes; and finally, (4) social architectures are deployed beyond tangible concepts through a multilevel relationship to pedagogy. Finally, we observe that reflections on gender, politics, decoloniality, and disciplinary transfers remain underexplored and need to be explicitly studied and integrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Issues in Participatory Architecture)
21 pages, 3347 KiB  
Article
Fiberglass as a Novel Building Material: A Life Cycle Assessment of a Pilot House
by Stavroula Bjånesøy, Jukka Heinonen, Ólafur Ögmundarson, Áróra Árnadóttir and Björn Marteinsson
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 690-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040037 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3454
Abstract
Alternative building materials have the potential to reduce environmental pressure from buildings, though the use of these materials should be guided by an understanding of the embodied environmental impacts. Extensive research on embodied greenhouse gas emissions from buildings has been conducted, but other [...] Read more.
Alternative building materials have the potential to reduce environmental pressure from buildings, though the use of these materials should be guided by an understanding of the embodied environmental impacts. Extensive research on embodied greenhouse gas emissions from buildings has been conducted, but other impacts are less frequently reported. Furthermore, uncertainty is rarely reported in building LCA studies. This paper provides a piece for filling those gaps by comprehensively reporting the embodied environmental impacts of a fiberglass house within the LCA framework, modeled in the OpenLCA software using the Ecoinvent 3.7.1 inventory database. The ReCiPe 2016 impact assessment method is used to report a wide range of environmental impacts. The global warming potential is calculated to be 311 kgCO2 eq/m2. Additionally, a hotspot analysis is included to identify areas that should be the focus for improvement, as well as an uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo. The embodied emissions are given context by a scenario analysis over a 50-year use phase in three different grid conditions and with two different energy efficiency levels. Based on the results of this study, it is determined that fiberglass does not provide a viable alternative to conventional building materials if the purpose is to reduce embodied emissions from buildings. Full article
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19 pages, 6176 KiB  
Article
Order, Procedure, and Configuration in Gothic Architecture: A Case Study of the Avas Church, Miskolc, Hungary
by Zoltán Bereczki
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 671-689; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040036 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 4419
Abstract
The geometric determination of Gothic architecture together with contemporary design methods is an important question in the history of arts. The Gothic style is unique in the history of European architecture: it is the only period when Antique models were barely used. The [...] Read more.
The geometric determination of Gothic architecture together with contemporary design methods is an important question in the history of arts. The Gothic style is unique in the history of European architecture: it is the only period when Antique models were barely used. The design methods were different than those used in Classical (and so Renaissance, Baroque, and Neo-Classicist) architecture: the design involved subsequent geometrical steps. These steps, and thus the procedure are at least as important as the resulting geometry itself. Using recent technology (laser scanning, algorithmic modelling), the procedure can be modelled. In this new approach for the research of Gothic architecture, not only the geometries themselves are the subject of examination but also the underlying generative processes. Contemporary written sources on design rules together with the fabric of the buildings themselves serve as source for this kind of research. In this case study, the late Gothic Avas church in Miskolc, Hungary served as a base for testing the extent of the use of surviving rules; generative, procedural algorithms were created based on the surviving parts and fragments to illustrate the demolished parts. Finally, a configurational analysis was conducted to compare the late medieval and early modern approach to design. Full article
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Opportunity to Re-Inhabit Traditional Buildings in Italy: Energy Efficiency Actions End Fiscal Incentives
by Valentina Cinieri and Andrea Garzulino
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 660-670; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040035 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2693
Abstract
In recent decades, the Italian building trade has recorded an increasing interest in the renovation and improvement of both listed and unlisted existing buildings by the Ministry of Culture, growing the debate on adapting historical buildings to current sustainability needs. The Italian National [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the Italian building trade has recorded an increasing interest in the renovation and improvement of both listed and unlisted existing buildings by the Ministry of Culture, growing the debate on adapting historical buildings to current sustainability needs. The Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) observed the increase in family commuting and the attractiveness of marginal territories. Despite the scarcity of services, one-fifth of Italian small municipalities are attractive according to some indicators, primarily the demographic growth in the last three years. The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the re-evaluation of inland areas. Remote working and the new need for open spaces could increase the return to small villages and be further boosted by the fiscal incentives. This paper considers the evolution of last year’s real estate market, evaluating whether the regulatory tools for energy retrofit and tax relief meet the trade crisis with a possible benefit of preserving historical buildings. This research cannot ignore the European background; therefore, this paper offers an overview of EU regulatory strategies for energy efficiency recently issued to increase sustainability, focusing on tax credits for improving existing buildings. In conclusion, some considerations are proposed for future in-depth research. Full article
23 pages, 6006 KiB  
Article
Making Architecture Relevant to Underserved Communities: Mapping Reconsidered
by Joongsub Kim
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 637-659; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040034 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and the death of George Floyd shed new light on longstanding disparities that exist in low-income communities of color and impact their overall well-being. Architectural educators and practitioners across the United States are engaging in public discourse to debate the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the death of George Floyd shed new light on longstanding disparities that exist in low-income communities of color and impact their overall well-being. Architectural educators and practitioners across the United States are engaging in public discourse to debate the role that architecture should play in promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion in education and the architectural profession. This trend has motivated us to ask: How can architecture be made more relevant to underserved communities? This article investigated that question via the construct of mapping. Mapping is a mechanism for reflection, rediscovery, and reexamination of the familiar and self-discovery of the less familiar. To further explore how mapping can help make architecture more relevant to disadvantaged populations, we used a mobile mapping station (MMS)—a practical, hands-on, community-based project conducted in Detroit. This article focused on MMSs, exploring how, when coupled with social justice values and equitable development principles, architecture can be made more accessible to broader populations. Full article
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21 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Three Strategies of Urban Renewal for One National Outline Plan TAMA38: The Impact of Multiparametric Decision-Making on Neighborhood Regeneration
by Dalit Shach-Pinsly
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 616-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040033 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 7236
Abstract
The urban renewal of deteriorated areas is a challenge for many city decision-makers. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and impact of the Israeli national outline plan, TAMA38, on urban renewal areas by examining three urban renewal strategies. This plan [...] Read more.
The urban renewal of deteriorated areas is a challenge for many city decision-makers. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and impact of the Israeli national outline plan, TAMA38, on urban renewal areas by examining three urban renewal strategies. This plan was developed to strengthen individual buildings against earthquakes, but it also serves as a catalyst for the renewal of deteriorated individual residential buildings in old neighborhoods, particularly in high-demand districts. TAMA38 focuses on the renovation of individual buildings, primarily residential, but neglects the comprehensive vision of the public and private needs of the neighborhood/site complex, of which the individual building is only one component. To understand which planning strategy will achieve better spatial results under TAMA38, a broader examination is required. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of three urban sites developed under the TAMA38 program in the city of Haifa using three main strategies: (1) one comprehensive plan led by one developer with a change in building locations (2) one comprehensive plan but led by diverse developers, while building locations remain unchanged and (3) individual building renewals with no comprehensive plan. The methodology for this analysis was based on the evaluation of various quantitative and quality parameters that influence the performance of the built environment. The results of the research emphasize the need to choose an urban renewal strategy tailored to a specific location, as well as the need for the authority to take responsibility for planning open public spaces throughout the process. Full article
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