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Advances in Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review

School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland
APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Western Road, T12 K8AF Cork, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fani Mantzouridou
Appl. Microbiol. 2022, 2(1), 73-103;
Received: 21 December 2021 / Revised: 13 January 2022 / Accepted: 14 January 2022 / Published: 15 January 2022
Kombucha is a carbonated, slightly acidic beverage traditionally produced by the fermentation of sweetened tea by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The microbial community of kombucha is a complex one, whose dynamics are still not fully understood; however, the emergence of culture-independent techniques has allowed a more comprehensive insight into kombucha microbiota. In recent times, advancements have been made towards the optimisation of the fermentation process, including the use of alternative substrates, defined starter cultures and the modification of fermentation parameters, with the aim of producing an innovative beverage that is improved in terms of its physiochemical, sensory and bioactive properties. The global kombucha market is rapidly increasing, with the rising popularity of the tea attributed in part to its purported health benefits, despite the lack of research in human subjects to substantiate such claims. Accordingly, the incidence of kombucha home-brewing has increased, meaning there is a requirement for individuals to recognise the potential hazards associated with fermentation and the relevant preventative measures to be undertaken to ensure the safe preparation of kombucha. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the current knowledge of kombucha production, microbiology, safety and marketing. View Full-Text
Keywords: kombucha; tea; beverage; fermentation; bacteria; yeast kombucha; tea; beverage; fermentation; bacteria; yeast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nyhan, L.M.; Lynch, K.M.; Sahin, A.W.; Arendt, E.K. Advances in Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review. Appl. Microbiol. 2022, 2, 73-103.

AMA Style

Nyhan LM, Lynch KM, Sahin AW, Arendt EK. Advances in Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review. Applied Microbiology. 2022; 2(1):73-103.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nyhan, Laura M., Kieran M. Lynch, Aylin W. Sahin, and Elke K. Arendt. 2022. "Advances in Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review" Applied Microbiology 2, no. 1: 73-103.

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