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Livers, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; or Metabolic-associated Fatty Liver Disease, MAFLD) affects 25–30% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Furthermore, NAFLD poses a substantial burden on health-related quality of life, with growing evidence suggesting bidirectional links between NAFLD and common mental health disorders. Management of NAFLD is challenging, with lifestyle modification remaining the first-line treatment option, although, in most cases, weight loss is hard to accomplish and/or sustain. Moreover, there is a lack of research exploring the potential benefits of person-centered and compassion-based approaches to the management of NAFLD. Herein, we draw on evidence from methods utilized in the treatment of other chronic conditions in postulating the view that such approaches might prove beneficial in the future management of NAFLD. View this paper
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16 pages, 1088 KiB  
Review
Nutrition Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Liver Disease: A Narrative Review
by Miguel Ángel Hidalgo-Blanco, Juan Carlos Lopez-Delgado and José Antonio Sarria-Guerrero
Livers 2023, 3(3), 529-544; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030036 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Nutrition therapy in critically ill patients with liver disease represents a challenge for Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Nutritional status is correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and the presence of malnutrition worsens outcomes in these patients. The nutritional risk that critically ill [...] Read more.
Nutrition therapy in critically ill patients with liver disease represents a challenge for Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Nutritional status is correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and the presence of malnutrition worsens outcomes in these patients. The nutritional risk that critically ill patients represent, together with the pathophysiological alterations of liver disease, especially in terms of nutrition intake and protein depletion, leads to malnutrition and sarcopenia. Nutrition therapy improves the survival of these patients; however, this is challenging since they more frequently experience difficulties with nutrition delivery. In consequence, both evaluation of nutritional status and an individualized approach seem mandatory for achieving nutrition objectives. The present narrative review discusses the importance of nutrition therapy, the recommendations of contemporary clinical practice guidelines, and a practical approach to provide the best possible nutrition therapy in patients with liver disease admitted to ICUs. Full article
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22 pages, 1993 KiB  
Review
Hepatitis E Virus: Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Its Significance as a Major Pregnancy Risk
by Sidra Urooj, Sadia Anjum, Fareeha Iqbal, Maisa Siddiq Abduh, Hashaam Akhtar, Sumbal Javed, Salik Javed Kakar, Aamer Ikram, Nabeel Ahmed Maqbool and Tahir Ahmad
Livers 2023, 3(3), 507-528; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030035 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1879
Abstract
HEV is a single-stranded, positive RNA virus. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causing agent of hepatitis, with a high prevalence rate in low-income countries due to poor sanitary conditions. It can exhibit acute, continuous, or extrahepatic consequences in immunocompromised individuals such [...] Read more.
HEV is a single-stranded, positive RNA virus. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causing agent of hepatitis, with a high prevalence rate in low-income countries due to poor sanitary conditions. It can exhibit acute, continuous, or extrahepatic consequences in immunocompromised individuals such as those undergoing organ transplantation and having HIV infection. HEV infection is either self limiting (silent), meaning the patient will possibly recover on his own, or symptomatic, causing acute liver injury or fulminant hepatitis and may eventually cause death. It can also cause chronic hepatitis that can progress to cirrhosis or recovery. Pregnancy-related HEV infection has an incidence rate of 30%. HEV escape from innate immunity, hormonal imbalances, defective monocyte–macrophage function, downregulation of the T-cell-mediated immune system, high cytokine production, nutritional factors, and socioeconomic conditions may play fundamental roles in the prevalence of HEV infection. It is necessary to take particular measures to reduce the incidence burden of HEV infection in high endemic locations as the incidence data, not the prevalence data, is more accurate at estimating disease dynamics. The purpose of this study is to throw light on several aspects of the hepatitis E virus and to discuss the incidence of HEV infection concerning other diseases. HEV molecular features, clinical features, epidemiology, extrahepatic manifestations, and multiple available diagnostics and treatment strategies for HEV are debated in the current review. Full article
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13 pages, 1211 KiB  
Article
Impact of IL-12B Genetic Variants on Antiviral Treatment Response among Hepatitis B Patients in Pakistan
by Yasmin Badshah, Maria Shabbir, Sameen Zafar, Uzma Mussarat, Aamer Ikram, Sumbal Javed and Hashaam Akhtar
Livers 2023, 3(3), 494-506; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030034 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
HBV is a continuous major global health concern. Genetic factors of hosts are known to play a role in HBV infection outcomes. This study aimed to reveal the association of IL-12b 3′ UTR variant rs3212227 in HBV patients. Genotyping was performed using ARMS-PCR [...] Read more.
HBV is a continuous major global health concern. Genetic factors of hosts are known to play a role in HBV infection outcomes. This study aimed to reveal the association of IL-12b 3′ UTR variant rs3212227 in HBV patients. Genotyping was performed using ARMS-PCR to detect IL-12b rs3212227 polymorphism. The patients were categorized into groups based on their response to the antiviral therapy. Group I: non-sustained virological response (NSR); Group II: sustained virological responders (SVR); and Group III: HBV-positive fresh cases. ALT levels were measured to evaluate liver function, and viral load was determined to evaluate viral infectivity among the study groups. The variant genotype CC was found to be significantly associated with the non-sustained virological response to the antiviral therapy (with a p-value of 0.0117; OR = 2.914; RR = 1.556). It was also determined that the genotype CC was the most prevalent genotype among both genders in the NSR group. Viral load was found to be 6-fold higher in Group III compared to Group I and Group II. The results suggest that genotype CC is the most prevalent genotype in the NSR groups, and it is associated with a poor response to antiviral therapy in Pakistani patients with HBV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis: Prevention, Infection, and Treatment)
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31 pages, 3387 KiB  
Review
Relationship between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Visceral Fat Measured by Imaging-Based Body Composition Analysis: A Systematic Review
by Ker Ming Seaw, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry and Xinyan Bi
Livers 2023, 3(3), 463-493; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030033 - 5 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Imaging-based body composition analysis can quantify visceral fat, which is an important feature of lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. This review assesses current evidence of the relationship between NAFLD, particularly hepatic steatosis, and visceral fat that is measured using imaging-based body [...] Read more.
Imaging-based body composition analysis can quantify visceral fat, which is an important feature of lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. This review assesses current evidence of the relationship between NAFLD, particularly hepatic steatosis, and visceral fat that is measured using imaging-based body composition analysis. PubMed Central and ScienceDirect were searched for studies that provided quantification of the relationship between NAFLD, hepatic steatosis and visceral fat. Twenty studies comprising 15,763 subjects were included, consisting of the relationship with NAFLD (n = 15) and the relationship with hepatic steatosis (n = 7). All studies reported a positive relationship between NAFLD and visceral fat. For hepatic steatosis regardless of severity, only one study reported no correlation with visceral fat. Further results showed that visceral fat is more related to NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in females than males. More studies including NAFLD of different stages must be performed in the future to validate the degree of association between visceral fat and NAFLD at all stages as well as this relationship difference between genders. Full article
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15 pages, 2294 KiB  
Review
Perspective on Quantitative Structure–Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) Models to Predict Hepatic Biotransformation of Xenobiotics
by Mansi Rai, Namuna Paudel, Mesevilhou Sakhrie, Donato Gemmati, Inshad Ali Khan, Veronica Tisato, Anurag Kanase, Armin Schulz and Ajay Vikram Singh
Livers 2023, 3(3), 448-462; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030032 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Biotransformation refers to the metabolic conversion of endogenous and xenobiotic chemicals into more hydrophilic substances. Xenobiotic biotransformation is accomplished by a restricted number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. The biotransformation of xenobiotics is catalyzed by various enzyme systems that can be divided [...] Read more.
Biotransformation refers to the metabolic conversion of endogenous and xenobiotic chemicals into more hydrophilic substances. Xenobiotic biotransformation is accomplished by a restricted number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. The biotransformation of xenobiotics is catalyzed by various enzyme systems that can be divided into four categories based on the reaction they catalyze. The primary concentration is in cytochrome P450, while the CYP enzymes responsible for xenobiotic biotransformation are located within the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (microsomes). Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are also present in extrahepatic tissues. Enzymes catalyzing biotransformation reactions often determine the intensity and duration of the action of drugs and play a key role in chemical toxicity and chemical tumorigenesis. The structure of a given biotransforming enzyme may differ among individuals, which can cause differences in the rates of xenobiotic biotransformation. The study of the molecular mechanisms underlying chemical liver injury is fundamental for preventing or devising new modalities of treatment for liver injury using chemicals. Active metabolites arise from the biotransformation of a parent drug compound using one or more xenobiotic-processing enzymes to generate metabolites with different pharmacological or toxicological properties. Understanding how exogenous chemicals (xenobiotics) are metabolized, distributed, and eliminated is critical to determining the impact of these compounds on human health. Computational tools such as Biotransformer have been developed to predict all the possible metabolites of xenobiotic and enzymatic profiles that are linked to the production of metabolites. The construction of xenobiotic metabolism maps can predict enzymes catalyzing metabolites capable of binding to DNA. Full article
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14 pages, 622 KiB  
Review
Challenges in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): Towards a Compassionate Approach
by Sue Shea, Christos Lionis, Chris Kite, Lou Atkinson, Lukasz Lagojda, Surinderjeet S. Chaggar, Ioannis Kyrou and Harpal S. Randeva
Livers 2023, 3(3), 434-447; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030031 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Representing a growing ‘silent epidemic’, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects around 25–30% of the general population. Alarmingly, NAFLD increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, both independently and through its strong associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, whilst posing a [...] Read more.
Representing a growing ‘silent epidemic’, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects around 25–30% of the general population. Alarmingly, NAFLD increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, both independently and through its strong associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, whilst posing a substantial burden from an economic and health-related quality of life perspective. Moreover, growing evidence links NAFLD to common mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, and stress. In this context, recent clinical and research attention further focuses on potential additional problems faced by patients with NAFLD, such as perceived stigma, lack of awareness regarding the condition, and possible feelings of loneliness and isolation that might emerge from unmet support needs. To date, despite a wealth of literature on NAFLD, management of the condition remains challenging and not straightforward, with most cases in primary care being treated with lifestyle modification on top of any other comorbidity treatment. However, for many patients with NAFLD, weight loss is hard to accomplish and/or sustain (e.g., patients may lack the skills, confidence, and motivation required to adhere to dietary changes, and/or may have problems limiting opportunities for increased physical activity). Therefore, tailored interventions which are manageable from the perspective of the individual patient with NAFLD could glean greater results. Accordingly, although there is a lack of research exploring the potential benefits of person-centered and compassion-based approaches to the management of NAFLD, in the present review, we draw on evidence from methods utilized in the treatment of other chronic conditions in postulating the view that such approaches might prove beneficial in the future management of NAFLD. Full article
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37 pages, 4668 KiB  
Review
Idiosyncratic DILI and RUCAM under One Hat: The Global View
by Rolf Teschke and Gaby Danan
Livers 2023, 3(3), 397-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030030 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Drugs are prescribed worldwide to treat diseases but with the risk of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI). The most important difficulty is how best to establish causality. Based on strong evidence and principles of artificial intelligence (AI) to solve complex processes through quantitative [...] Read more.
Drugs are prescribed worldwide to treat diseases but with the risk of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI). The most important difficulty is how best to establish causality. Based on strong evidence and principles of artificial intelligence (AI) to solve complex processes through quantitative algorithms using scored elements, progress was achieved with the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) in its original and updated versions, often viewed now as the gold standard. As a highly appreciated diagnostic algorithm, the RUCAM is in global use with around 100,000 iDILI cases published worldwide using RUCAM to assess causality, largely outperforming any other specific causality assessment tool in terms of case numbers. Consequently, the RUCAM helps to establish a list of top-ranking drugs worldwide implicated in iDILI and to describe clinical and mechanistic features of iDILI caused by various drugs. In addition, the RUCAM was recently applied in iDILI cases of patients treated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections or cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as well as in the search for new treatment options with conventional drugs in iDILI. Analyses of RUCAM-based iDILI cases are helpful to support pathogenetic steps like immune reactions, genetic predisposition as evidenced by human leucocyte antigens (HLA) genotypes for selected drugs, and the role of the gut microbiome. To achieve consistency in data collection, analysis, and specific clinical and pathogenetic presentation, researchers, regulatory agencies, and pharmaceutical firms should place iDILI and the updated RUCAM as the causality tool under one and the same hat in review articles and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of iDILI. Full article
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14 pages, 757 KiB  
Review
The Role of Immune Cells in Liver Regeneration
by Yankai Wen
Livers 2023, 3(3), 383-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030029 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The liver is the only organ that can regenerate and regain its original tissue-to-body weight ratio within a short period of time after tissue loss. Insufficient liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy or liver transplantation with partial liver grafts often leads to [...] Read more.
The liver is the only organ that can regenerate and regain its original tissue-to-body weight ratio within a short period of time after tissue loss. Insufficient liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy or liver transplantation with partial liver grafts often leads to post-hepatectomy liver failure or small-for-size syndrome, respectively. Enhancing liver regeneration after liver injury might improve outcomes and increase patient survival. Liver regeneration comprises hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatic progenitor cell expansion and differentiation into hepatocytes. The immune system is intensively involved in liver regeneration. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of the diverse roles played by immune cells in liver regeneration. Macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, platelets, dendritic cells, type 1 innate lymphoid cells, B cells, and T cells are implicated in promoting liver regeneration, while natural killer cells and overactivated natural killer T cells are supposed to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation. We also highlight the predominant underlying mechanisms mediated by immune cells, which may contribute to the development of novel strategies for promoting liver regeneration in patients with liver diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
Dysfunctions of Circulating Adaptive Immune Cells in End-Stage Liver Disease
by Tong Liu, Yasmina Chouik, Fanny Lebossé and Wafa Khamri
Livers 2023, 3(3), 369-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030028 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) from acute liver failure to compensated advanced chronic liver disease and decompensated cirrhosis at different stages (chronic decompensation, acute decompensation with or without acute-on-chronic liver failure) has high disease severity and poor patient outcome. Infection is a common complication [...] Read more.
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) from acute liver failure to compensated advanced chronic liver disease and decompensated cirrhosis at different stages (chronic decompensation, acute decompensation with or without acute-on-chronic liver failure) has high disease severity and poor patient outcome. Infection is a common complication in patients with ESLD and it is associated with a high mortality rate. Multiple mechanisms are involved in this marked susceptibility to infections, noticeably the inadequate immune response known as immune paresis, as part of cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID). Specifically in the adaptive immune arm, lymphocyte impairments—including inadequate activation, reduced ability to secrete effector molecules and enhanced immune suppressive phenotypes—result in compromised systemic immune responses and increased risk of infections. This review summarises current knowledge of alterations in adaptive immune responsiveness and their underlying mechanisms in ESLD. Understanding these mechanisms is of crucial importance in the identification of potential therapeutic targets and applications of targeted treatments beyond antimicrobials, such as immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Immune Cells in Acute and Chronic Liver Disease)
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15 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
KIR Genotypes Impact Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
by Waleed Abdelmaguid, Doha Maher, Mohamed A. S. Kohla, Sameera Ezzat, Inas Moaz, Wael S. Abdel-Mageed, Khalil A. El-Halfawy and Mohamed H. Abdel-Rahman
Livers 2023, 3(3), 354-368; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030027 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2087
Abstract
In Egypt, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent cancer in men and the second most prevalent cancer in women. In addition, Egypt has one of the highest prevalences of hepatitis C infection in the world. The aim of the present work was [...] Read more.
In Egypt, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent cancer in men and the second most prevalent cancer in women. In addition, Egypt has one of the highest prevalences of hepatitis C infection in the world. The aim of the present work was to study the potential role of the 16 KIR genes in the outcome of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egypt. The study was carried out under an IRB-approved protocol. Sequence-Specific-Primer-PCR (SSP-PCR) was used for KIR genotyping of germline DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes or from the non-tumor liver of 83 HCC patients, 100 patients with chronic HCV infection without HCC, and 120 matched healthy controls. Out of the 83 HCC patients, only 7 (8.4%) were treated by interferon and/or interferon Ribavirin combination, while for the remaining patients 50 (60.2%) received no prior HCV therapy and 26 (31.3%) were treated with direct-acting antiviral (DAA). Our results showed that KIR haplotype AA that contains more inhibitory KIR genes and fewer activating genes was observed with a significantly lower frequency in HCC patients (6/83, 7.2%) compared to chronic HCV (27/100, 27.0%) (p = 0.0005, OR = 0.21 [0.08–0.53]) and healthy controls (29/119, 24.4%) (p = 0.001, OR = 0.24 [0.09–0.61]). In addition, the frequency of genotype 6 (G6) which contains all the KIR genes was significantly high in the HCC patients (16/83, 19.3%) compared to chronic HCV (8/100, 8.0%) (p = 0.02, OR = 2.7 [1.11–6.79]) and healthy controls (8/119, 6.7%) (p = 0.006, OR = 3.31 [1.35–8.16]). Activating KIR genes 2DS1 and 3DS1 were significantly higher in HCC patients (48/83, 57.83% and 45/83, 54.22%) compared to the chronic HCV patients (36/100, 36% and 34/100, 34%), p = 0.028, 0.027, respectively. Our results are contrary to a prior work on HCC from patients with HCV who were mostly treated by interferon-based therapies. In conclusion, KIR haplotype AA has an important role in host defense against HCC progression especially in patients treated by DAA, suggesting an important role of the KIR genotype status on the outcome of chronic HCV infection. Full article
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7 pages, 469 KiB  
Case Report
Can Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation Result from a Mild COVID-19 Infection?
by Ioannis Braimakis, Sofia Vasileiadi, Eleni-Myrto Trifylli, Nikolaos Papadopoulos and Melanie Deutsch
Livers 2023, 3(3), 347-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030026 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2875
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) is a well-described result of immunosuppressive therapy initiation in various diseases, with the dose and duration of treatment being the main factors determining the probability for reactivation. Such cases have also been described in COVID-19 patients treated with [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) is a well-described result of immunosuppressive therapy initiation in various diseases, with the dose and duration of treatment being the main factors determining the probability for reactivation. Such cases have also been described in COVID-19 patients treated with immunosuppressive therapies. Nevertheless, cases of COVID-19 infection that led to HBVr with no concurrent immunosuppressive treatment or any other related cause have also been reported. By that observation, we present a patient followed for a period spanning 20 years with HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection and non-detectable HBV DNA who, after a mild COVID-19 infection treated only with low-dose and short-duration-inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), developed elevated AST and ALT as well as elevated HBV DNA levels. Other etiologies of abnormal liver biochemistries during the diagnostic workout were excluded; thus, the diagnosis of HBV reactivation was established. Treatment with entecavir was initiated, leading to the normalization of AST and ALT levels and a decreasing trend of HBV DNA levels. Since other causes of reactivation were excluded, and the ICS dose and duration were found baring only a very low risk (<1%) for HBVr, COVID-19 infection could be considered the most probable cause of reactivation, hence underlining the need for the close monitoring of those patients. Full article
16 pages, 7330 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics of Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Using PCK Rats
by Satyajeet Khare, Lu Jiang, Diego Paine-Cabrera, Udayan Apte and Michele T. Pritchard
Livers 2023, 3(3), 331-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030025 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Congenital hepatic fibrosis/Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (CHF/ARPKD) is an inherited neonatal disease induced by mutations in the PKHD1 gene and characterized by cysts and robust pericystic fibrosis in the liver and kidneys. The PCK rat is an excellent animal model that carries [...] Read more.
Congenital hepatic fibrosis/Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (CHF/ARPKD) is an inherited neonatal disease induced by mutations in the PKHD1 gene and characterized by cysts and robust pericystic fibrosis in the liver and kidneys. The PCK rat is an excellent animal model that carries a Pkhd1 mutation and exhibits similar pathophysiology. We performed RNA-Seq analysis on liver samples from PCK rats over a time course of postnatal day (PND) 15, 20, 30, and 90 using age-matched Sprague Dawley (SD) rats as controls to characterize molecular mechanisms of CHF/ARPKD pathogenesis. A comprehensive gene expression analysis identified 1298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PCK and SD rats. The genes overexpressed in the PCK rats at PND30 and 90 were involved cell migration (e.g., Lamc2, Tgfb2, and Plet1), cell adhesion (e.g., Spp1, Adgrg1, and Cd44), and wound healing (e.g., Plat, Celsr1, Tpm1). Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) and platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb), two genes associated with fibrosis, were upregulated in PCK rats at all time points. Genes associated with MHC class I molecules (e.g., RT1-A2) or involved in ribosome assembly (e.g., Pes1) were significantly downregulated in PCK rats. Upstream regulator analysis showed activation of proteins involved tissue growth (MTPN) inflammation (STAT family members), chromatin remodeling (BRG1), reduction in fibrosis (SMAD7), and inhibition of proteins involved in hepatic differentiation (HNF4α). Immunofluorescence staining revealed that cyst wall epithelium cells also express hepatic progenitor cell markers. The increase in mRNAs of four top upregulated genes, including Reg3b, Aoc1, Tm4sf20, and Cdx2, was confirmed at the protein level using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these studies indicate that a combination of increased inflammation, cell migration, wound healing, decreased antifibrotic gene expression, and inhibition of hepatic function are the major underlying pathogenic mechanisms in CHF/ARPKD. Full article
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6 pages, 214 KiB  
Communication
The Long Game: A Functional Cure Is Possible with Nucleoside Analogues and the Tincture of Time
by Nicholas Noverati, Vivian Yan, Jay W. Jun, Dina Halegoua-DeMarzio and Hie-Won Hann
Livers 2023, 3(3), 325-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030024 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Chronic hepatitis B is still prevalent globally. Many patients are treated for many years with nucleos(t)ide analogues to prevent the virus from actively replicating. However, although it typically requires consecutive treatment for more than 10 years, patients can achieve a functional cure from [...] Read more.
Chronic hepatitis B is still prevalent globally. Many patients are treated for many years with nucleos(t)ide analogues to prevent the virus from actively replicating. However, although it typically requires consecutive treatment for more than 10 years, patients can achieve a functional cure from this virus. This case series presents details of functional cures in patients who received varying nucleos(t)ide therapies for an average of 15.3 years before losses of hepatitis B surface antigen and viral load were observed. It is imperative to understand that abbreviating therapy once a functional cure is achieved may be a possibility in treating patients in order to limit the associated costs and side effects of an otherwise lifelong therapy until other cure drugs are approved. Full article
3 pages, 890 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Liver Fibrosis: Mechanisms, Targets, Assessment and Treatment”
by Ralf Weiskirchen and Tilman Sauerbruch
Livers 2023, 3(3), 322-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/livers3030023 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Fibrosis is a double-edged sword [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Fibrosis: Mechanisms, Targets, Assessment and Treatment)
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