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A Review of Enzyme Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP): The Role of Enzyme Kinetics

UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
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Sustain. Chem. 2021, 2(1), 92-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem2010007
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a relatively new bio-cementation technique for ground improvement. In EICP, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation occurs via urea hydrolysis catalysed by the urease enzyme sourced from plants. EICP offers significant potential for innovative and sustainable engineering applications, including strengthening of soils, remediation of contaminants, enhancement of oil recovery through bio-plugging and other in situ field applications. Given the numerous potential applications of EICP, theoretical understanding of the rate and quantity of CaCO3 precipitation via the ureolytic chemical reaction is vital for optimising the process. For instance, in a typical EICP process, the rate and quantity of CaCO3 precipitation can depend significantly on the concentration, activity and kinetic properties of the enzyme used along with the reaction environment such as pH and temperature. This paper reviews the research and development of enzyme-catalysed reactions and its applications for enhancing CaCO3 precipitation in EICP. The paper also presents the assessment and estimation of kinetic parameters, such as the maximal reaction velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km), that are associated with applications in civil and geotechnical engineering. Various models for evaluating the kinetic reactions in EICP are presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of pH, temperature and inhibitors. It is shown that a good understanding of the kinetic properties of the urease enzyme can be useful in the development, optimisation and prediction of the rate of CaCO3 precipitation in EICP. View Full-Text
Keywords: urease enzyme; urea hydrolysis; bio-cementation; EICP; enzyme kinetics urease enzyme; urea hydrolysis; bio-cementation; EICP; enzyme kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahenkorah, I.; Rahman, M.M.; Karim, M.R.; Beecham, S.; Saint, C. A Review of Enzyme Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP): The Role of Enzyme Kinetics. Sustain. Chem. 2021, 2, 92-114. https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem2010007

AMA Style

Ahenkorah I, Rahman MM, Karim MR, Beecham S, Saint C. A Review of Enzyme Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP): The Role of Enzyme Kinetics. Sustainable Chemistry. 2021; 2(1):92-114. https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem2010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahenkorah, Isaac; Rahman, Md M.; Karim, Md R.; Beecham, Simon; Saint, Christopher. 2021. "A Review of Enzyme Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP): The Role of Enzyme Kinetics" Sustain. Chem. 2, no. 1: 92-114. https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem2010007

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