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Endocrines, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 2 articles

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16 pages, 1058 KiB  
Review
Human and Murine Cell Lines for Adrenocortical Carcinoma and Pheochromocytoma
by Edlira Luca, Andrea Abate, Katharina Wang, Stefan Bornstein, Sandra Sigala, Felix Beuschlein, Svenja Nölting and Constanze Hantel
Endocrines 2024, 5(3), 261-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines5030019 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are malignancies originating from distinct layers of the adrenal gland. ACCs arise from the adrenal cortex, are often detected at advanced stages and are associated with poor prognosis. PCCs are mostly benign, arise from the adrenal medulla [...] Read more.
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are malignancies originating from distinct layers of the adrenal gland. ACCs arise from the adrenal cortex, are often detected at advanced stages and are associated with poor prognosis. PCCs are mostly benign, arise from the adrenal medulla and have a variable prognosis, with 10% of PCCs resulting in metastasis. Genetic background strongly influences metastasis of PCCs, and no reliable biomarkers that predict metastatic behavior exist to date. Current therapeutic strategies for both ACCs and PCCs are overall limited. Thus, novel preclinical models and drug screening approaches need to be established to aid in the identification of more promising drugs and treatment schemes. In this review, we summarize the currently available human and murine cell lines for both tumor entities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Endocrines: 2024)
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9 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Androgenic Steroid Hormones and Endurance Exercise in Athletic Women
by Anthony C. Hackney, Raul Cosme Ramos Prado and Eimear Dolan
Endocrines 2024, 5(3), 252-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines5030018 - 2 Jul 2024
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Abstract
This study investigated the impact of intensive endurance exercise on circulating androgenic steroid hormones in women. Fifteen normally menstruating athletic women participated. They completed intensive endurance exercise (treadmill running) until volitional fatigue in their follicular phase, with blood samples collected at pre-exercise, volitional [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of intensive endurance exercise on circulating androgenic steroid hormones in women. Fifteen normally menstruating athletic women participated. They completed intensive endurance exercise (treadmill running) until volitional fatigue in their follicular phase, with blood samples collected at pre-exercise, volitional fatigue, 90 min and 24 h into recovery. The steroid hormones (total, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], and DHEA-sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol) were analyzed in blood sera. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess changes across exercise and recovery. At volitional fatigue, all hormones, except free testosterone, were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to pre-exercise levels. Most hormones remained elevated through 90 min of recovery, with DHEA, DHEA-S, and total testosterone changes being significant (p < 0.05). At 24 h of recovery, hormonal levels were reduced; specifically, DHEA, DHEA-S, and total testosterone compared to baseline (p < 0.01 to 0.06). Increases in cortisol levels at volitional fatigue and 90 min of recovery were correlated with reductions in total testosterone, DHEA, and DHEA-S observed at 24 h of recovery (rho > −0.62, p < 0.05). In conclusion, in menstruating women performing intensive endurance exercise during their follicular phase, their androgenic steroid hormones remain elevated during early recovery but are suppressed at 24 h of recovery. The latter finding indicates that establishing a resting endocrine equilibrium requires a longer recovery period than 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exercise Endocrinology)
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