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vehicles, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
A Recursive Wheel Wear and Vehicle Dynamic Performance Evolution Computational Model for Rail Vehicles with Tread Brakes
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 88-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010006
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The increased temperature of the rail wheels due to tread braking causes changes in the wheel material properties. This article considers the dynamic wheel material properties in a wheel wear evolution model by synergistically combining a multi-body dynamics vehicle model with a finite [...] Read more.
The increased temperature of the rail wheels due to tread braking causes changes in the wheel material properties. This article considers the dynamic wheel material properties in a wheel wear evolution model by synergistically combining a multi-body dynamics vehicle model with a finite element heat transfer model. The brake power is estimated from the rail-wheel contact parameters obtained from vehicle model and used in a finite element model to estimate the average wheel temperature. The wheel temperature is then used for wheel wear computation and the worn wheel profile is fed to the vehicle model, thereby forming a recursive simulation chain. It is found that at a higher temperature, the softening of the rail-wheel material increases the rate of wheel wear. The most affected dynamic performance parameter of the vehicle is found to be the critical speed, which reduces sharply as the wheel wear exceeds a critical limit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Sensitivity in Consumption of Different Vehicle Drivetrain Concepts Under Varying Operating Conditions: A Simulative Data Driven Approach
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 69-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010005
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
As an important aspect of today’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the energy demand of passenger cars is a subject of research. Different drivetrain concepts like plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) are introduced into the market in [...] Read more.
As an important aspect of today’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the energy demand of passenger cars is a subject of research. Different drivetrain concepts like plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) are introduced into the market in addition to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) to address this issue. However, the consumption highly depends on individual usage profiles and external operating conditions, especially when considering secondary energy demands like heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). The approach presented in this work aims to estimate vehicle consumptions based on real world driving profiles and weather data under consideration of secondary demands. For this purpose, a primary and a secondary consumption model are developed that interact with each other to estimate realistic vehicle consumptions for different drivetrain concepts. The models are parametrized by referring to state of the art contributions and the results are made plausible by comparison to literature. The sensitivities of the consumptions are then analysed as a function of trip distance and ambient temperature to assess the influence of the operating conditions on the consumption. The results show that especially in the case of the BEV and PHEV, the trip distance and the ambient temperature are a first-order influencing factor on the total vehicle energy demand. Thus, it is not sufficient to evaluate new vehicle concepts solely on one-dimensional driving cycles to assess their energy demand. Instead, the external conditions must be taken into account for a proper assessment of the vehicle’s real world consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 57-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010004
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and [...] Read more.
This paper explores the procurement, use, and experience of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in Danish municipalities in relation to the notion of early adopters and socio-technical theory. Denmark has been one of the most ambitious countries in terms of electric vehicle adoption and use. This study used a combination of in-depth surveys and interviews with all 61 Danish municipalities on their fleet PEV experience and use. By building on the literature, the paper offers a deeper understanding of decision-making pathways for the procurement of PEVs. PEVs were found to be most suited to certain departments and the acceptance and uptake of PEVs was found to be complex and not straightforward. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Level Energy Management—Part II: Implementation and Validation
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 41-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010003
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
In hybrid electric vehicles, energy management systems (EMS) using optimization show superior fuel efficiency compared to rule-based strategies. However, little research shows its real-life applicability. In Part II of this work, the multi-level, model-predictive EMS from Part I is implemented on a heavy-duty [...] Read more.
In hybrid electric vehicles, energy management systems (EMS) using optimization show superior fuel efficiency compared to rule-based strategies. However, little research shows its real-life applicability. In Part II of this work, the multi-level, model-predictive EMS from Part I is implemented on a heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric vehicle, using GPS and map data as preview. The power split, hybrid mode, and gear selection, including switching costs, are optimized in real time, thereby proving the feasibility of optimal control techniques for hybrid driveline control. Functional validation of the EMS on a test track confirm the fuel-saving mechanism as simulated in Part I. In addition to a fuel saving of 36%, the EMS also improves the drivability, by reducing the amount of open driveline events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Level Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Part I
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 3-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010002
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
The fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is improved, by taking the energy relevant system states into account in the energy management system (EMS). With an increasing number of states and decision variables, energy optimizing algorithms in the EMS can be [...] Read more.
The fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is improved, by taking the energy relevant system states into account in the energy management system (EMS). With an increasing number of states and decision variables, energy optimizing algorithms in the EMS can be prohibitive for real-time implementation. In part I of this work, a model-based, multi-level approach is taken to subdivide the original (large) optimization problem into computational efficient sub-problems, based on optimal control techniques using a preview. The resulting EMS solves the problem of power-split between engine and motor/generator, mode and gear switching including switching costs, with battery energy constraints. The superior energy efficiency of the multi-level EMS is simulated on a representative heavy duty drive cycle, where it saves 7.0% fuel, compared to a conventional vehicle, where the baseline EMS for the HEV saves 5.8%. In part II, real-world validation of the EMS is performed. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Vehicles: A New Open Access Journal to Publish Your Ground Vehicle Research Results
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010001
Received: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
The broad definition of a vehicle includes any type of mechanism that transports people or cargo in the air or space, on or under the surface of the water, or on the surface of the ground [...] Full article
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