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Multi-Level Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Part I

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
DAF Trucks N.V., 5600 PT Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
vehicles 2019, 1(1), 3-40;
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
PDF [2124 KB, uploaded 15 February 2019]


The fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is improved, by taking the energy relevant system states into account in the energy management system (EMS). With an increasing number of states and decision variables, energy optimizing algorithms in the EMS can be prohibitive for real-time implementation. In part I of this work, a model-based, multi-level approach is taken to subdivide the original (large) optimization problem into computational efficient sub-problems, based on optimal control techniques using a preview. The resulting EMS solves the problem of power-split between engine and motor/generator, mode and gear switching including switching costs, with battery energy constraints. The superior energy efficiency of the multi-level EMS is simulated on a representative heavy duty drive cycle, where it saves 7.0% fuel, compared to a conventional vehicle, where the baseline EMS for the HEV saves 5.8%. In part II, real-world validation of the EMS is performed. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy management; optimal control; multi-level; switching decisions energy management; optimal control; multi-level; switching decisions

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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van Reeven, V.; Hofman, T. Multi-Level Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Part I. vehicles 2019, 1, 3-40.

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