Next Article in Journal
Electric vehicles in Danish Municipalities: An Understanding of Motivations, Barriers, and the Future of Sustainable Mobility
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Level Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Part I
Open AccessArticle

Multi-Level Energy Management—Part II: Implementation and Validation

by 1,2 and 1,*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
DAF Trucks N.V., 5600 PT Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vehicles 2019, 1(1), 41-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010003
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
In hybrid electric vehicles, energy management systems (EMS) using optimization show superior fuel efficiency compared to rule-based strategies. However, little research shows its real-life applicability. In Part II of this work, the multi-level, model-predictive EMS from Part I is implemented on a heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric vehicle, using GPS and map data as preview. The power split, hybrid mode, and gear selection, including switching costs, are optimized in real time, thereby proving the feasibility of optimal control techniques for hybrid driveline control. Functional validation of the EMS on a test track confirm the fuel-saving mechanism as simulated in Part I. In addition to a fuel saving of 36%, the EMS also improves the drivability, by reducing the amount of open driveline events. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy management; optimal control; multi-level; switching decisions energy management; optimal control; multi-level; switching decisions
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

van Reeven, V.; Hofman, T. Multi-Level Energy Management—Part II: Implementation and Validation. Vehicles 2019, 1, 41-56. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010003

AMA Style

van Reeven V, Hofman T. Multi-Level Energy Management—Part II: Implementation and Validation. Vehicles. 2019; 1(1):41-56. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Reeven, Vital; Hofman, Theo. 2019. "Multi-Level Energy Management—Part II: Implementation and Validation" Vehicles 1, no. 1: 41-56. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles1010003

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop