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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 4 articles

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Review
Application of Nanotechnology in COVID-19 Infection: Findings and Limitations
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(4), 203-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3040014 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
There is an urgent need to address the global mortality of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it reached 6.3 million as of July 2022. As such, the experts recommended the mass diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection at an early stage using nanotechnology-based sensitive diagnostic approaches. [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need to address the global mortality of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it reached 6.3 million as of July 2022. As such, the experts recommended the mass diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection at an early stage using nanotechnology-based sensitive diagnostic approaches. The development of nanobiosensors for Point-of-Care (POC) sampling of COVID-19 could ensure mass detection without the need for sophisticated laboratories or expert personnel. The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques for POC detection was also proposed. In addition, the utilization of various antiviral nanomaterials such as Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the development of masks for personal protection mitigates viral transmission. Nowadays, nano-assisted vaccines have been approved for emergency use, but their safety and effectiveness in the mutant strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus remain challenging. Methodology: Updated literature was sourced from various research indexing databases such as PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Research Gate and Google Scholars. Result: We presented the concept of novel nanotechnology researched discovery, including nano-devices, electrochemical biosensing, nano-assisted vaccine, and nanomedicines, for use in recent times, which could be a formidable step for future management of COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Nanostructured Silicon Enabled HR-MS for the Label-Free Detection of Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicles
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(4), 189-202; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3040013 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Despite improvements in treatment options for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), survival outcomes are still best for patients with non-metastasised disease. Diagnostic tools to identify blood-based biomarkers and assist in CRC subtype classification could afford a means to track CRC progression and treatment response. [...] Read more.
Despite improvements in treatment options for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), survival outcomes are still best for patients with non-metastasised disease. Diagnostic tools to identify blood-based biomarkers and assist in CRC subtype classification could afford a means to track CRC progression and treatment response. Cancer cell-derived small extracellular vesicles (EVs) circulating in blood carry an elevated cargo of lipids and proteins that could be used as a signature of tumour suppressor/promoting events or stages leading up to and including metastasis. Here, we used pre-characterised biobanked plasma samples from surgical units, typically with a low volume (~100 µL), to generate and discover signatures of CRC-derived EVs. We employed nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) surface assisted-laser desorption/ionisation (SALDI) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), to allow sensitive detection of low abundant analytes in plasma EVs. When applied to CRC samples, SALDI-HR-MS enabled the detection of the peptide mass fingerprint of cancer suppressor proteins, including serine/threonine phosphatases and activating-transcription factor 3. SALDI-HR-MS also allowed the detection of a spectrum of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipid signatures in metastatic CRC. We observed that lithium chloride enhanced detection sensitivity to elucidate the structure of low abundant lipids in plasma EVs. pSi SALDI can be used as an effective system for label-free and high throughput analysis of low-volume patient samples, allowing rapid and sensitive analysis for CRC classification. Full article
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Article
Antibody Delivery into the Brain by Radiosensitizer Nanoparticles for Targeted Glioblastoma Therapy
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(4), 177-188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3040012 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Background: Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain malignancy in adults. Standard of care treatment, consisting of temozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), mostly does not prevent local recurrence. The inability of drugs to enter the brain, in particular antibody-based drugs and radiosensitizers, [...] Read more.
Background: Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain malignancy in adults. Standard of care treatment, consisting of temozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), mostly does not prevent local recurrence. The inability of drugs to enter the brain, in particular antibody-based drugs and radiosensitizers, is a crucial limitation to effective glioblastoma therapy. Methods: Here, we developed a combined strategy using radiosensitizer gold nanoparticles coated with insulin to cross the blood–brain barrier and shuttle tumor-targeting antibodies (cetuximab) into the brain. Results: Following intravenous injection to an orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model, the nanoparticles specifically accumulated within the tumor. Combining targeted nanoparticle injection with TMZ and RT standard of care significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended survival, as compared to standard of care alone. Histological analysis of tumors showed that the combined treatment eradicated tumor cells, and decreased tumor vascularization, proliferation, and repair. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate radiosensitizer nanoparticles that effectively deliver antibodies into the brain, target the tumor, and effectively improve standard of care treatment outcome in glioblastoma. Full article
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Review
Role of Nanomaterials in COVID-19 Prevention, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Vaccine Development
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(4), 151-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3040011 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Facing the deadly pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus all over the globe, it is crucial to devote efforts to fighting and preventing this infectious virus. Nanomaterials have gained much attention after the approval of lipid nanoparticle-based COVID-19 vaccines by the United States [...] Read more.
Facing the deadly pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus all over the globe, it is crucial to devote efforts to fighting and preventing this infectious virus. Nanomaterials have gained much attention after the approval of lipid nanoparticle-based COVID-19 vaccines by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). In light of increasing demands for utilizing nanomaterials in the management of COVID-19, this comprehensive review focuses on the role of nanomaterials in the prevention, diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine development of COVID-19. First, we highlight the variety of nanomaterials usage in the prevention of COVID-19. We discuss the advantages of nanomaterials as well as their uses in the production of diagnostic tools and treatment methods. Finally, we review the role of nanomaterials in COVID-19 vaccine development. This review offers direction for creating products based on nanomaterials to combat COVID-19. Full article
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