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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 5 articles

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31 pages, 2202 KiB  
Review
Exosomes for Regulation of Immune Responses and Immunotherapy
by Md Walid Akram Hussain, Sarah Jahangir, Bikona Ghosh, Farjana Yesmin, Afnan Anis, Sabikun Nahar Satil, Faizan Anwar and Mohammad Harun Rashid
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(1), 55-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3010005 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 9153
Abstract
Exosomes are membrane-enveloped nanosized (30–150 nm) extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin produced by almost all cell types and encompass a multitude of functioning biomolecules. Exosomes have been considered crucial players of cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes [...] Read more.
Exosomes are membrane-enveloped nanosized (30–150 nm) extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin produced by almost all cell types and encompass a multitude of functioning biomolecules. Exosomes have been considered crucial players of cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes can modulate the immune system by delivering a plethora of signals that can either stimulate or suppress immune responses, which have potential applications as immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Here, we discuss the current knowledge about the active biomolecular components of exosomes that contribute to exosomal function in modulating different immune cells and also how these immune cell-derived exosomes play critical roles in immune responses. We further discuss the translational potential of engineered exosomes as immunotherapeutic agents with their advantages over conventional nanocarriers for drug delivery and ongoing clinical trials. Full article
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16 pages, 2704 KiB  
Article
In Silico, Combined Plasmonic Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy in Mice
by Georgios Kareliotis, Eleni Chronopoulou and Mersini Makropoulou
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(1), 39-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3010004 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3586
Abstract
Plasmonic photothermal and photodynamic therapy (PPTT and PDT, respectively) are two cancer treatments that have the potential to be combined in a synergistic scheme. The aim of this study is to optimize the PPTT treatment part, in order to account for the PDT [...] Read more.
Plasmonic photothermal and photodynamic therapy (PPTT and PDT, respectively) are two cancer treatments that have the potential to be combined in a synergistic scheme. The aim of this study is to optimize the PPTT treatment part, in order to account for the PDT lack of coverage in the hypoxic tumor volume and in cancer areas laying in deep sites. For the needs of this study, a mouse was modeled, subjected to PDT and its necrotic area was estimated by using the MATLAB software. The same procedure was repeated for PPTT, using COMSOL Multiphysics. PPTT treatment parameters, namely laser power and irradiation time, were optimized in order to achieve the optimum therapeutic effect of the combined scheme. The PDT alone resulted in 54.8% tumor necrosis, covering the upper cancer layers. When the PPTT was also applied, the total necrosis percentage raised up to 99.3%, while all of the surrounding studied organs (skin, heart, lungs and trachea, ribs, liver and spleen) were spared. The optimized values of the PPTT parameters were 550 mW of laser power and 70 s of irradiation time. Hence, the PPTT–PDT combination shows great potential in achieving high levels of tumor necrosis while sparing the healthy tissues. Full article
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20 pages, 5077 KiB  
Review
Implantable Devices for the Treatment of Breast Cancer
by Mohammad Mohtasim Hamid Pial, Asahi Tomitaka, Nezih Pala and Upal Roy
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(1), 19-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3010003 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4934
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the female population worldwide. Standard treatments such as chemotherapy show noticeable results. However, along with killing cancer cells, it causes systemic toxicity and apoptosis of the nearby healthy cells, therefore patients must [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the female population worldwide. Standard treatments such as chemotherapy show noticeable results. However, along with killing cancer cells, it causes systemic toxicity and apoptosis of the nearby healthy cells, therefore patients must endure side effects during the treatment process. Implantable drug delivery devices that enhance therapeutic efficacy by allowing localized therapy with programmed or controlled drug release can overcome the shortcomings of conventional treatments. An implantable device can be composed of biopolymer materials, nanocomposite materials, or a combination of both. This review summarizes the recent research and current state-of-the art in these types of implantable devices and gives perspective for future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members)
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1 pages, 151 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of the Journal of Nanotheranostics in 2021
by Journal of Nanotheranostics Editorial Office
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3010002 - 2 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Rigorous peer reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
17 pages, 6916 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Nanoparticles as Theranostics Platforms for Glioblastoma Treatment: Phototherapeutic and X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography Investigations
by Loredana Ricciardi, Sharmistha Chatterjee, Giovanna Palermo, Elisabeta I. Szerb, Alessia Sanna, Francesca Palermo, Nicola Pieroni, Michela Fratini, Roberto Bartolino, Alessia Cedola, Massimo La Deda and Giuseppe Strangi
J. Nanotheranostics 2022, 3(1), 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt3010001 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest and most aggressive cancers, remarkably resilient to current therapeutic treatments. Here, we report preliminary in vivo studies of GBM treatments based on photo-nanotherapeutics to activate synergistic killing mechanisms. Core-shell nanoparticles have been weaponized by combining [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest and most aggressive cancers, remarkably resilient to current therapeutic treatments. Here, we report preliminary in vivo studies of GBM treatments based on photo-nanotherapeutics to activate synergistic killing mechanisms. Core-shell nanoparticles have been weaponized by combining photophysical properties of a new generation PDT agent (Ir(III) complex) with the thermoplasmonic effects of resonant gold nanospheres. In order to investigate the damages induced in GBM treated with these photoactivable nanosystems, we employed X-ray phase-contrast tomography (XPCT). This high-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique highlighted a vast devascularization process by micro-vessels disruption, which is indicative of tumor elimination without relapse. Full article
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