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Worldwide Coverage Mobile Systems for Supra-Smart Cities Communications: Featured Antennas and Design

Department of Audio-Visual Engineering and Communications, ETS Ingrniería y Sistemas de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle de Nikola Tesla sn, 28031 Madrid, Spain
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Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 556-584; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030030
Received: 26 April 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
Current terrestrial mobile communications networks can’t provide worldwide coverage. Satellite communications are expensive, and terminals are large and heavy. Worldwide mobile coverage requires the use of satellites providing an appropriate QoS, including polar regions. The analysis of the potential satellite constellations demonstrates that LEO one is the best solution. A new generation of low cost, small size, lightweight and global mobile coverage LEO satellites is emerging. The main limitation of the terminals is the antenna size factor, and innovative antennas must be developed to meet this goal. This paper investigates the technologies and techniques for designing and developing antennas aimed at LEO satellite communications in Smart Cities and beyond, which are especially beneficial for mobile communications in areas without 4G/5G coverage. The paper focuses on the terrestrial segment and future mobile devices, remarking the design constraints. In this scenario, the paper reviews the most relevant technologies and techniques used to design suitable antennas. The investigation analyses the state-of-the-art and most recent advances in the design of antennas operating in the Ku-band. The main contribution of the authors is a novel antenna design approach based on SIW technology. The antenna features are compared with other approaches, highlighting the benefits, advantages and drawbacks. As a conclusion, the proposed antenna demonstrates to be a good solution to meet the design constraints for such an application: light, low cost, small size factor.
Keywords: smart cities; worldwide coverage mobile systems; SIW; satellite antenna; LEO; radiation pattern; antenna gain; circular polarization smart cities; worldwide coverage mobile systems; SIW; satellite antenna; LEO; radiation pattern; antenna gain; circular polarization
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Benavente-Peces, C.; Herrero-Sebastián, I. Worldwide Coverage Mobile Systems for Supra-Smart Cities Communications: Featured Antennas and Design. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 556-584.

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