The Nexus between Market Needs and Value Attributes of Smart City Solutions towards Energy Transition. An Empirical Evidence of Two European Union (EU) Smart Cities, Evora and Alkmaar
1.1. Towards a Sustainable Energy Transition—The Role of Cities and Positive Energy Districts
1.2. Supporting Policies Linked to PEDs and Smart City Projects
2. Research Methodology
2.1. Setting Up a Process to Realize Energy Transition in Smart Cities Understanding Value Attributes of Potential Solutions
2.1.1. Step 1: Identify City Needs—SWOT Analysis
2.1.2. Step 2: Key Objectives and Link to Policies—The Key Objectives Were Selected after a Consultation Process with the Cities—Their Needs
2.1.3. Step 3: From High Objectives and Policies to Selecting City Specific Innovative Solutions
2.1.4. Step 4: Understanding Value Generated and How It Addresses the Market Needs
3.1. The SWOT Analysis for the Cases of Evora and Alkmaar
3.2. The Energy Transition Strategy for the Cases of Evora and Alkmaar
3.3. Identification of City Specific Innovative Solutions Satisfying Market Needs
3.3.1. Evora and Alkmaar Innovative Solutions for Realizing Their PEDs
3.3.2. Market Needs and Value Proposition of Solutions Grouped Under the 4 ETTs
3.4. Value Attributes According to Maslow’s Value Pyramid—Towards Sustainable Business Models
4. Conclusions and Further Considerations
Conflicts of Interest
|Category||Current and Future Market Needs||Type of Solution||Brief Description and Value Proposition|
|RES generation (fitted for old/protected buildings/areas)||•Architectural constraints (e.g., appearance of the building cannot change, the weight of the structure cannot be increased) especially in old/protected buildings/areas pose significant barriers for the installation of conventional RES systems, thus there is a need for customizable and integrated solutions;|
•Building-integrated PVs (BIPVs) are gaining popularity among construction stakeholders;
•Increased aesthetics of PV systems can support their acceptance, especially when installed in public spaces;
•EV market is experiencing a rapid growth and building/district-level RES can satisfy the needs of the charging points for EVs;
•During the last years, extra emphasis has been put on developing construction materials/systems that are characterized by quicker installation times, thus decreasing costs and impact during installation as well as minimizing disturbance of the occupants;
•Hybrid energy generation systems are gaining popularity, since they can help overcome otherwise unsurpassed barriers (e.g., low sunshine for an extended period in the case of PV systems);
•In urban areas and close to urban areas there is resistance of residents against windmills. Wind energy is associated with noise pollution and loss of visual amenity;
•The deployment of hybrid wind/solar generation systems is becoming more and more economically appealing, since the upfront costs are continuously reduced (until now hybrid systems were characterized by comparatively very high costs for each kWh produced).
•Although there is a clear need for RES generation on a local level, this may not be the case for many buildings/districts where there is simply not enough space and the conditions to install PV systems. Increasing RES penetration in these cases is very challenging (reaching positiveness seems like an impossible task to accomplish). As a result, there is a need to provide solutions that can enable everyone to invest in RES if we are looking towards just energy transition.
|PV (crystalline silicon) glass||BIPV glass-glass//Can substitute any regular glass, changing the way we design buildings//Lets natural light in//Provides thermal and sound insulation//Filters most of harmful UV//Ease of customization, especially in terms of shape//Crystalline silicon glass can yield twice as much energy as amorphous silicon glass//Aesthetically attractive.|
|PV canopies||Photovoltaic canopies for RES generation//Sun protection and shelter//Depending on the type of canopy, the electricity yielded can be consumed in different ways: self-consumption for surrounding buildings, lighting, ad-box illumination, back-up systems, charging point for EVs, injection to the grid//Various design options (multiple slopes, different tilts and orientations, multiple glass design options etc.).|
|PV skylights||BIPV skylights for RES generation//Let natural light in//Provide bioclimatic properties of thermal comfort to the building//Filter UV and infrared rays//PV skylights achieve competitive IRR and offer appealing payback times.|
|Roof-integrated PV systems||BIPV systems used on roofs//Usually light roofing element//Offer waterproofing without the need of torch on asphalt membrane or other waterproofing membranes//Possibility of installation on pitch roof//Can be made of triple-junction thin-film amorphous silicon, converting a broader spectrum of light into electricity than conventional modules.|
|PV roofing shingles||PV roofing shingles combining the functionality of tiles with PV technology//Thermal inertial properties typical of terracotta//The cables arrangement can be optimized, improving installation speed//Snap-on multi-contact fixtures make the replacement of modules quick and easy even by non-experts//Installation does not require tubs and/or fixing brackets (no thermal bridges)//The appearance of the building remains unchanged.|
|Composite façades with vertical solar panels||Vacuum composite facade panels with insulation and composite façade with solar cells (combining insulation and electricity production)//A lot of unused façade surface of residential buildings (passive facades) can become useful to produce solar energy (active facades)//Multipurpose.|
|Hybrid wind/solar generation system||An innovative combination of urban wind and solar production system that can be installed on top of buildings//Takes advantage of natural strong airflow by wind over high-rise buildings to generate wind energy//More constant energy production (night-wind/day-solar)//Can be modified architecturally (color, shape)//Aesthetically attractive.|
|Community Solar Farm||Innovative compensation model that allows citizens that live in old protected areas to invest in renewable generation placed in PV plants in the outskirts of the city, via a virtual energy wallet//Allows the injection of renewable energy from places where more space is available.|
|Smart energy management, control, and self-consumption||•The coordinated operation of RES production and supporting storage systems can increase the flexibility of the grid, and since the RES penetration will be increasing, there will be a stronger need for technologies/products that can serve this functionality;|
•Growing need for technologies and solutions that can support the stability of the power networks and simplify the integration of renewables in existing power systems, avoiding and/or limiting expensive and inefficient investments on new grid infrastructures as far as possible;
•New business opportunities are expected for energy communities, acting as aggregators as well, investing in renewable production, storage devices, and providing ancillary services;
•Increasing need for non-invasive solutions capable of preserving the historical structures of buildings;
•Increasing need for solutions with the final goal of saving energy, while increasing occupants’ comfort;
•Lack of integrated smart building/home solutions with reasonable cost;
•Massification of smart building technologies is expected due to the introduction of the smart readiness indicator (EPBD).
•The increasing usage of cloud-based technologies increases the pressure in energy grid supplying Datacenter facilities, making it fundamental to make operations more efficient and capable to adapt to growing needs;
|Bidirectional Smart Inverters||A single device for improving flexibility and controllability of multiple energy assets//Rich user interface//Intelligent optimization of yield and self-consumption//Improvement regarding RES cut-off due to network congestion.|
|Energy Routers||A device for the integration of energy components and optimally managing the energy flux between them//Modular design and increased interoperability capabilities//Can act as a major component in the grid/consumer energy interface, being responsible for grid-to-grid communication.|
|Building Management Systems (BMS)||Fundamental pieces of a building technological infrastructures, as they act as central or distributed controllers of the different building systems//Real time monitoring and management of HVAC, lighting, energy consumption/production, and/or other systems/devices//Reduction of energy consumption of buildings - energy savings//Optimization of indoor comfort for occupants and usability of the building//Services built around the BMS infrastructure (e.g., maintenance, smart workspaces).|
|Building/Home Energy Management Systems(BEMS/HEMS)||Systems being able to forecast the local energy production, detect consumption profiles, and establish an optimal energy-related building operation//Improved flexibility and controllability of residential and commercial buildings//Rich user interface and user experience//Intelligent techniques (incl. forecasting) to optimize energy usage and comfort preferences//Provide added-value services for electric grid//Self-learning systems.|
|Positive Computing Data Center||Innovative methodologies, processes, and equipment improving the energy efficiency of data centers//Improve the ratio of total amount of energy used by a computer data facility to the energy delivered to computing equipment.|
|Energy efficiency||•Increasing need for better performant, greener insulation materials and systems, since energy efficiency should come first before moving to the installation of RE production systems;|
•Insulation of sound is also a significant aspect;
•Extremely high renovation potential in EU;
•Using Phase Change Materials gave way to unique applications of heating/cooling solutions—their commercial use has only been recently unlocked due to their high production and encapsulation costs until now;
•Technologies and services that can facilitate the transition from a linear to a circular economy are already becoming a necessity if we are looking towards sustainable urban development. This is possible by making more use of circular recyclable materials. This is becoming increasingly important with renovation and new construction projects;
•For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient (and usually cost-efficient) alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. The market needs the heat pumps to be smaller and lighter, to be integrated in the facades.
|Triple Glazing||Triple glazing with low solar entry factor (G-value)//Sound insulation//A special seam and crack seal can be used in the window frames to minimize the infiltration of cold air in comparison with the standard values (NEN 2686).|
|PCM in the floor||Floor insulation utilizing PCM materials that absorbs heat and stores it//Functions as thermal battery//Re-uses waste heat//More stable climate and higher comfort.|
|Insulation with Circular Materials||Replacement of conventional insulation materials with circular materials such as flax, linseed//Retain high insulation properties//By using used or natural materials, there is a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions, partly because no new raw materials are mined|
|Thermo Acoustic Heat Pumps||Electrical driven thermo-acoustic heat pumps are closed systems that are filled with Helium under pressure, utilizing acoustic waves to pump heat//Can operate over a large range of (high) temperatures and can achieve large temperature lifts//Energy needs reduction//Can be integrated in facades//Act both as booster and as part of an integrated hybrid heating/cooling system.|
|Cascaded Heat Pumps||Cascades of small heat pumps are utilized to increase performance and flexibility due to increased modularity//Can be combined with PV-thermal panels to create an integrated high-efficient hybrid heating concept.|
|Sustainable waste utilization and management||•As population rises, more materials/products are consumed, and thus more waste is produced—making efficient waste management a necessity for sustainable development;|
•To reduce the environmental and health impacts of waste and to improve resource efficiency, there is a growing need for different, more efficient, and dynamic waste collection systems and motivated people, knowing what, how, and why it should be done;
•The growing awareness and pressure for changing our habits, so that they are increasingly sustainable, requires a change in the way we produce and treat the waste.
•Raw materials are scarce. In order to keep materials available indefinitely, they need to be reused, and their use must be documented;
•Re-used material could offer financial and environmental benefits compared to newly bought materials, e.g., less transport movements, less use of water, electricity, and other resources, CO2 reduction, job potential.
|Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT)||A ready-to-use solution that lets municipalities track their citizens’ waste production levels//State-of-the-art technology applied to common municipal waste containers and a management platform, allowing the monitoring of the amount of urban waste deposited, the creation of multiple profiles and permission levels, optimizing the collection routes, configuring alerts, and giving access to the collected data//Change behavior of citizens.|
|Reverse Collection of Waste||A novel waste collection scheme, characterized by the separate collection of each re-usable commodity at different moments, instead of collecting mixed garbage by the garbage truck every week//Re-usable commodities can be used to create new products. Less raw material has to be used and/or less new material has to be fabricated (energy saving, environmental saving, emission saving, etc.).|
|Material Passports||A tool for mapping material streams//Gives insight into the materials used to create a building, and into their quantities//Contains information on the quality of materials, their location, and their monetary and circular value//It becomes a lot easier to reuse materials, minimize waste, and to reduce the cost of material consumption//Improved insight into the use of material will stimulate the circular economy.|
|Category||Current and Future Market Needs||Type of Solution||Value Proposition|
|Grid-Level Energy Management||•As the penetration of RES into the market is rising, the demand for controlling platforms to maintain power load stability and increase grid flexibility is increasing. Such solutions can introduce into the market novel services for grid support; |
•The lack of DERs for controllability and the integration of resources controlled by end-consumers contribute greatly to the need;
|Micro-grid controller platform||A grid level management platform that uses advanced distribution management and control strategies//Offers high level control authority allowing for optimal RES integration//Supports prosumers in grid operation//Allows the provisioning of flexibility and market services using RES forecasting, DERs, energy models and load estimation tools//Offers improved flexibility and controllability of energy resources//Interface that allows controlling existing assets of DSOs.|
|•The time variability of RES and electrification of energy demand increase the need for demand-side management (DSM) measures at different levels of power systems; |
•The need to modify energy consumption in real time can also be identified in other energy systems, e.g., peak demand reduction in district heating;
•Need to implement DSM measures while respecting users’ comfort needs and preferences.
|Flexibility Control Algorithms||Flexibility Control Algorithms that use the energy flexibility provided by different types of controllable devices//Bringing benefits for both consumers (e.g., lower energy costs) and power systems operators (e.g., lower peak loads)//Energy performance improvement at building and district level//Energy flexibility (e.g., appliances and batteries)//Self-consumption improvement//Satisfying the comfort needs and preferences of consumers.|
|•Opportunities of flexible energy management are great both for commercial and residential consumers. As RES and smart grids occupy larger shares of the market, such management is required in order to outperform centralized energy distribution and control. |
•The CEMS can introduce enhanced flexibility and controllability that will allow the further penetration of RES and smart grids into a city’s energy system.
|City Energy Management System (CEMS)||City Energy Management System used by power system operators to monitor, control, and manage energy while allowing end users to control smart devices, unlocking the opportunities of flexible energy//Ensures a smart global management through relevant manufacturers devices//Ease of use//Can determine power generation or power demands that minimize a certain objective such as power loss//The Energy Flexibility Interface (EFI) included in the CEMS provides additional aid on Smart Grid Management.|
|•Changes in the dynamics of power grids from centralized to distributed, moderating costs, and easy accessibility of energy storage are some of the factors driving the growth of the VPPs.|
•Total annual VPP vendor revenue will grow from $1.1B in 2014 to $5.3B in 2023 . VPPs influence multiple markets simultaneously due to their integrated character;
•Small units can get access to lucrative markets that they would not be able to enter individually. Small facilities, owned by SMEs or even households, have the ability to become prosumers .
|Virtual Power Plant (VPP)||VPP is a virtual power network that links decentralized units and operates as a single centralized control system where the power and flexibility of the aggregated assets can be traded collectively. Non-physical (hence virtual) aggregation of several heterogeneous Distributed Renewable Energy Resources (DRERs)//Cost-effective alternative to complement the power mismatch due to intermittent RE generation//Avoids expensive upgrades to the network infrastructure//Exploitation of the aggregated power mitigates the impact of electricity price fluctuations//Relieving the load on the grid by smartly distributing the power during peak load periods.|
|•Growing demand for electricity requires measures to control energy losses as well as to reduce the economic and ecological footprint of this transition. The market needs efficient and cleaner decentralized energy supply grids . |
•EMS, renewable systems, storage, and low carbon applications are changing the market landscape, potentially leading to a transition from an AC-dominated grid market to a DC one.
|DC grid||Direct Current Electricity Grid Infrastructure. Electronic Waste reduction//Lower losses and Higher Transmission Capacity for the facilitation of production, storage and distribution of solar electricity than traditional AC networks//Better connection with intelligent control technology and batteries for achieving energy efficiency and optimal zone distribution in buildings.|
|Sustainable Energy Storage Systems||•In the industrial/services and large consumers market, storage solutions provide with backup and uninterrupted energy supply services, as well as implementing intelligent energy management strategies such as peak shaving or ramp rate control. |
•For grid operators and utilities these solutions provide effective tools to manage and control power quality in the grid (MV).
|Low Voltage (LV) and Medium Voltage (MV) connected storage systems||Integrated Low-voltage and Medium-Voltage electric energy storage battery systems//Scalability of power and capacity//Ease of implementation and integration into existing electrical networks//Allowing to deal with increasing RES and their inherent variability//Multitude of offered services, i.e., peak-shaving, reactive power compensation, RE self-consumption maximization, power quality management and control etc.|
|•Batteries will play a crucial role in enabling the next phase of the transition towards renewables. As more and more households have adopted PV systems, battery system integration can provide self-sufficiency and reduce the monthly electricity bills. The economic benefit is thus the driving force of the technology in an expanding market.||Stationary batteries(Li-ion)||Innovative Lithium-ion Stationary Battery Systems//Increased storage capacity//Energy cost reduction//Contribution to advanced load balancing//On-demand-emergency discharging capabilities//Ensuring power availability and power quality within the building (e.g., during blackouts)//Improving comfort and prolonging the lifespan of indoor devices.|
|•It is critical to find solutions that can either substitute Li-ion batteries and/or extend their productive life; the EV battery supply market will undergo a major expansion over the coming years, which is also expected to affect material demand and increase price pressure .||2nd Life Residential Batteries||Modular and mobile (smaller) battery system that re-uses Li-Ion battery modules coming from EVs//Re-purposes Li-Ion battery modules (dealing with the upcoming wave of obsolete electric vehicle (EV) batteries)//Extends the productive life of EV battery modules//Affordable.|
|•With the proliferation of self-consumption generation, an efficient energy management leads to energy cost savings and more efficient use of energy (particularly in large facilities—stores where energy consumption is higher, thus its impact). |
•At periods where energy demand is higher than supply it is of extreme relevance that consumers can shift, curtail, or switch off energy demand.
|Freezing storage in store||Energy storage system from HVAC or industrial freezers in retail stores//Energy consumption reduction for stores//Energy cost reduction//Leveraging thermal inertia of the freezers//Providing demand side flexibility services to the grid//Complying to pre-established criteria of comfort and safety//Optimization of energy management based on daily consumption profile; intraday energy cost variation; and PV generation.|
|•There is a high need for replacing traditional fossil fuel-dependent heating and cooling systems with sustainable ones; |
•During recent years aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) has gained a lot of attention and the number of ATES is increasing, especially in Europe .
|Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage||An innovative system for heat/cold storage in the ground//Sustainable thermal storage solution that takes advantage of otherwise wasted heat streams to provide heating and cooling to the buildings in a cost-effective way (also reducing associated CO2 emissions)//Characterized by lower costs due to peak shavings and lower energy use.|
|Sustainable DHC Networks||•There is a growing need to help cities upgrade their DHC energy systems (in many cases being outdated), especially for coal regions in transition; |
•DHC systems can utilize waste, geothermal heat, and surplus heat which increase a region’s security of energy supply.
|DHC||Connection to the district heating (both at high and at low(er) temperatures) which distributes heat from a biomass energy plant, which runs on (municipal waste) wood, and in a later stage the district heating will be connected with geothermal energy sources//Outcomes and lessons learned from this process can provide valuable insights for the upgrade of DHC of other cities in EU.|
|•The need for a green-based economy not only propels the growth of the district heating market but also imposes market related needs such as energy efficiency and quick transition to RES. |
•Future initiatives towards better insulation and a growing insulation market favor the further penetration of such solutions into the market.
|Low temperature heat grid||Low Temperature (80/85) Heat Network. Cost-effective//Enhanced flexibility in the network design//Lower heat losses//Offering greater possibility for RES penetration into the heat grid (such as geothermal heat sources)// Separating the indoor installation from the heat network, which is safer in the event of leaks, lower water pressure in the home, limit-arrange return temperature.|
|•Global targets for climate change mitigation and decarbonization require higher RES penetration, reliability and energy efficiency of DHC systems.||Geothermal heat source||Geothermal Heating Distribution Network for Buildings. Low Environmental Impact//High Energy Efficiency//Reliable//Clean heat source with energy transfer from the earth//Typically require little maintenance.|
|•Various waste heating technologies are launched in the market to support smart city concept and eco-friendly development to sustain the environment.||Low temperature waste heat||Small-scale waste heat recovery network//Heating cost reduction//Waste heat recovery//Energy consumption reduction//Optimal heat distribution to customers.|
|•Configuration and maintenance of traditional heating installations is cumbersome, leading to malfunctioning, inefficiencies, and economic losses throughout their lifetime, routinely spanning several decades. With the introduction of 4th generation DHC Networks, the need for designing optimal controlling algorithms increases .|
•Delivering heat electrification requires dynamic, real-time demand-supply matching solutions where the interplay between heat and electricity is considered.
|Thermal grid controller||A thermal heat controlling software that saves operational costs//Cost reduction//Energy savings//Ease of planning and configuration process//Optimal balance between producers (supply) and consumers (demand) of heat and cold//Highly scalable, allowing systems of hundreds or thousands of producers and consumers to be controlled in an efficient way//Adaptable in the available buffer capacity and flexibility that different heating system components offer//Real-time matching solution for heating and cooling systems|
|•The Urban Heat Island effect results in increasing cooling and electricity energy needs, increased thermal stress, and heat-related public health issues, as well as human comfort and environmental implications .||Heat Island concept||Innovative Energy Management System for Heating|
Optimal energy distribution and management at building level//Increased heating efficiency//Energy savings//Algorithmic-based alignment of production and use of electricity between the several connected products.
|P2P energy trading||•Increased population of energy prosumers leads to P2P energy transactions needs;|
•Need for universal access to affordable, fairly priced, and abundant energy;
•Take control and responsibility for the self-provision of energy needs allowing the possibility to produce and sell own electricity creating investment opportunities, which can enhance energy equity.
|Peer to Peer Energy transactions||A digital fundraising and P2P energy transactions platform. Provides energy services for the end user and makes the renewable energy sources and energy storage more attractive to end users//Facilitates virtual energy communities for energy sharing (solar sharing—i.e., for cultural heritage communities where solar power at residential level may not be an option).|
|Hydrogen Technologies||•The demonstration of a complete hydrogen-based fuel cell system that can supplement the existing grid can facilitate larger-scale penetration of this technology to the existing energy market.|
•The hydrogen fuel cell vehicle market size is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 66.9% from 2019 to 2026 . An increase in government initiatives for development of hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure is observed (e.g., Hydrogen Europe and H2KOREA ). Eminent recognition of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies in European energy policy (Clean Energy package 2016) is another positive parameter of hydrogen sector expansion .
|Fuel cells (hydrogen)||Hydrogen fuel cells are electrochemical power generators that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as by-products//Integration into local grids and hybrid heat systems provides means for increased energy efficiency//Energy storage with hydrogen fuel cells can lead to substantial cost reduction through peak shaving//Fuel cells do not need to be periodically recharged like batteries, but instead continue to produce electricity as long as a fuel source is provided//Clean, scalable, operate near-silently, and present improved efficiency, especially in combined heat and power (CHP) systems//Sustainable hydrogen can be utilized as a power fuel in heavy duty transport vehicles (HDV) and also to stabilize the grid, serving as storage for Power to Fuel concept.|
|Category||Current and Future Market Needs||Type of Solution||Brief Description and Value Proposition|
|V2G and EV Charging Infrastructure||•As the adoption of EVs increases, decreasing prices of EVs and new models with bigger batteries are accelerating the market growth, making V2G an attractive flexibility solution for the power system, accelerating the convergence of mobility and energy . As a result, demand for charging infrastructure is rising, transforming the EV charging industry drastically ;|
•Demand for V2G and smart charging is increasing rapidly as countries move towards an electric transport sector . V2G and smart charging can spawn widespread benefits for the grid while also for the city, with an expected positive impact on energy saving, environmental preservation, traffic management, and urban planning of public spaces;
•Location constraints for the installation of EV charging systems generate a need for highly customizable and integrated solutions;
•Solar energy is quickly becoming the cheapest source of electricity. In many countries solar is the lowest cost power option today—both in residential and commercial applications, but also increasingly in the utility-scale field . In PV markets where increased self-consumption is the goal, charging EVs using solar energy is yet another way to help achieve energy independence ;
•Distribution System Operators cannot manage congestion and ensure grid reliability. Leveling advancement of the energy grid with new assets (e.g., e-buses) can help;
•The availability of EV charging stations needs to be increased rapidly to support e-mobility. Smart lighting can facilitate this transition, providing also good light quality, large area coverage, and 5G connectivity. The mobile operators are searching for opportunities to rapidly implement the 5G networks, with low installation costs and avoiding populating the city landscape with more and more antennas.
•EV charging industry offers new services and capabilities for interconnection with other intelligent systems.
|EV charging from PV systems||Smart solar charging of EVs. RES generation//EV charging with regard to every own user profile, type of customer application, specific market, and pilot area//Carbon footprint reduction//Provides intelligent techniques for prosumers with EVs to optimize self-consumption, energy usage and cost//Improved flexibility and controllability of EVs and fleets//Rich user interface//Provides added value services for electric grid, e.g., grid pressure reduction.|
|V2G||System connected bidirectionally with the power grid in which plug-in EVs provide demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by controlling their charging rate. Charging of EVs utilizing RES while providing also services to the grid from the vehicle batteries//Provides flexibility at national level by facilitating balancing in the wholesale market, and also at district level by reducing the costs associated with reinforcing local electricity grids and control or adjust charging in order to decrease simultaneously and lower peaks in demand//Cost reduction//Management as stand-alone unit or in local clusters//Allows public transport operators to access the energy markets for trading options.|
|Smart Lamp posts with EV charging and 5G functionalities||Smart Lampposts for efficient LED lighting, 4G/5G Wi-Fi, and EV charging. Integration of wireless monitoring, computational, networking, storage, and EV charging capabilities in one infrastructure//Future-proof solution with bleeding edge technology flexible and cost-effective, tackling current e-mobility, connectivity, and communication needs//Avoids the installation of multiple infrastructures in the city, saving visual pollution//Allows the renting of the different service providers with reduced costs//Allows the integration of V2G.|
|DC lighting with EV charging||Direct Current (DC) infrastructure network allowing connection with smart lampposts having EV charging points, 5G, monitoring sensors, and e-storage. Promotes adoption of EVs//Promotes increase of large-scale local e-storage capacity//Promotes more environmentally friendly, emission-free, and energy saving mobility and public lighting solutions//Successful introduction of demand-supply energy management at district-level//Data gathering for energy positive and smart neighborhoods//Better alternative from antennas, which create a disturbing view//No need of extra space for charging poles for EVs.|
|Smart EV Charging||•Decentralized energy generation with increased RES penetration and liberalized energy markets render the integration of e-mobility management systems of great relevance. |
•Key enabling technologies linked to the use of an ICT platform with a wider energy management system offer new services for smart cities, as they are cloud-based and easily integrated with other smart energy and mobility systems or software.
•Grid flexibility services is a topic that is expected to become increasingly more relevant as RES penetration tends to increase in the upcoming years, therefore additional fluctuation on energy generation is set to occur.
• Smart EV charging solutions can satisfy the needs for transparency, data, and information about the locations and tariffs of charging points. The adoption of such controlling solutions may lead to broadness of the available offers to EV users increasing competition in the market and therefore potentially lowering the charging costs, assisting also in widening the existing EV charging network available to EV users, fostering the transition to e-mobility.
|EV charging management platform||EV Charging Management Platform that ensures optimal energy performance of EV chargers//Multi-level planning that offers operational efficiency and the highest performance of EV charging infrastructure//Optimization of energy management//Data management and information for aggregators, grid operators, municipality, and citizens//Providing grid flexibility or ancillary services to transmission system operators//Allows to shift or curtail energy consumption at EV chargers (on demand side), avoiding peak (high cost) periods//Customizable and adaptable to the requirements of each district or area.|
|Intelligent and optimal control algorithms||Monitoring and Controlling Software for EV Chargers. Monitoring and control of EV chargers for public transport in real-time operation to prevent grid connection overruns and optimize utility of chargers//Lowering contracted power agreements with grid operators//Lower upfront investments in grid connection and number of chargers (CAPEX)//Providing insights, data, and information related to operational issues and needs//Ability to adjust to energy peak demand//Flexible and better usage of the available chargers//Reducing energy costs even further.|
|E-mobility Schemes||•As shared mobility grows in popularity, electrification in the shared use market will help cities to meet their climate goals, and reduce GHG emissions. Car sharing and carpooling are changing the habits of consumers. The focus is more on car use; car ownership may be less important.|
•Special attention is given to (electric) car/bike sharing in new urban planning strategies. EV sharing will help the quality of the historic city centers to be better reflected.
|EV Sharing||Shared Mobility Service of EVs in cities//Traffic reduction//Cost reduction//Energy savings//Improves Air Quality//Alleviating upfront costs//Creates lower-density neighborhoods by decreasing the amount of parking spaces needed//Bringing people into familiarization with EVs//Offers additional benefits and deals for consumers (i.e., experiences and photos exchange, navigation systems).|
|Category||Current and Future Market Needs||Type of Solution||Brief Description and Value Proposition|
|Changing Energy Behavior(through Digital Tools)||•Citizen-centric solutions are adopted more easily by means of citizens taking personal and collective responsibility for how they ‘use’ their city, changing their mindset, behaviors, and actions; |
•Need for multi directional information flows (i.e., city-to-citizen, citizen-to-city) and using co-creation methods to regenerate the cities bottom up;
•Citizen participation and adoption of solutions is enhanced by the use of technologies and digitization;
•Understand the motivations and motives of citizens leads to a more effective participation policy;
•Bring a more competitive and fun character to the use of novel technologies, educate, engage, and reward toward changing energy behavior;
•Travel-based mobile apps are the seventh most-downloaded app category;
•Growth of tourist flows in heritage places raises a huge need for intelligent management of these flows.
•Mobile apps capable of collecting information from region/city/building and suggesting good practices to optimize the tourist experience in heritage places—a mandatory request of most heritage municipalities/managers;
•Enable wide citizen/tourist participation, awareness, and adoption rates, as well a faster and easier interaction between consumers and devices;
•EU and government regulations promote smart grid solutions and exponentially increasing adoption of smart meters are also expected to drive the demand for big data analytics among utility vendors where mobile apps measuring energy consumption are also part of the solutions to be developed.
|Gamification||A gamification platform for changing the behavior of citizens and end-users. Increases citizen engagement (through gamification) in energy related technologies and services//Interconnects users with mobile apps and with smart metering and automation solutions.|
|Tourist apps||Tourist mobile apps for managing crowd flows in heritage areas. Increase quality of life for tourists but also citizens through reducing waiting times and intelligent management of crowd flows//Easy to use app in order to potentiate tourists’ adhesion.|
|Cultural experiences marketplace||Mobile apps promoting touristic cultural experiences facilitating dissemination and publicity of energy related measures. Cultural experiences app marketplace for promoting touristic experiences and cultural activities in specific regions facilitating dissemination and publicity at a national/international level of energy related apps.|
|Energy consumption monitor, automation, and control through mobile apps||Mobile apps for energy consumption/generation monitoring, automation, control, and analytics. Integrates diverse information, from different systems (PV generation, EV charges, energy consumption, energy price, etc.).|
|City Services Infrastructures and Systems||•Cities go digital both for internal workflow processes and for new ways to engage with citizens;|
•Regional and local authorities need to make informed, based on real time data decisions regarding the planning and investments;
•Citizens are increasingly interested in being informed about various issues—among others, traffic, air quality, waste collection, energy, and environmental aspects;
•CIPs can be integrated with sensor networks and data lakes designed with functionalities that allow for cross functional operation, enabling an advanced information and interaction framework that helps cities perform more efficiently and engage citizens;
•Real-time information about different environmental variables is necessary in order to, e.g., help city decision-makers make well-supported decisions regarding the planning of new infrastructures and traffic control (where not only atmospheric but also noise pollution is crucial);
•Systems responsible for data acquisition must not increase burden over existing power distribution grids and should be easy to install by local non-specialized workers. Wireless networks could cover all data acquisition points with much lower cost and less effort for installation and maintenance than wired networks.
|City Information Platform||A city information platform integrating data offering standards-based management making smart cities interoperable. Facilitates quick analysis and decision support//Serves as a data acquisition hub//Policy making tool//Provide a variety of citizen related information//Engagement through providing a feeling of co-ownership.|
|Wi-fi data acquisition systems||Autonomous Wi-Fi Data Acquisition Systems for real-time measurement of multiple environmental variables. Real-time information on temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, UV radiation, harmful gases, luminosity, and noise//Correlates historical data in order to establish a map of the organic behavior of a specific area//Independent from local power distribution grids, power supply is guaranteed by the integrated PV module and battery//Autonomous systems following a modular approach and can be installed by non-specialized workers according to data measurement needs.|
|Data lake intelligence for positive communities||Data lake intelligence with advanced cognitive and semantic analysis for positive communities, providing open data and information to better manage energy blocks and players. Produce contextualized and focused knowledge//Automatic collection of unstructured, external (online) content from several sources (media, social networks).|
|Fostering Energy related Innovations||•Increasing needs for cloud services that enable and facilitate the experimentation, design, and implementation of new products;|
•Co-creation: Innovative solutions requirements and specification should be co-developed together between city partners and involved Startups;
•Experimental solutions deployed in integrated living labs can be scaled-up to other cities;
•(Re-)design based on circular products and services is growing fast, keeping energy and product fluxes as local as possible;
•Lack of pro-active and leading contribution of employees from local governments;
•Hiring of external consultants can deliver the necessary temporary manpower and expertise but has the disadvantage of the local loss of expertise once the project is over and the consultants gone.
|Smart cloud for innovative startups||Mobilize the local Startup Ecosystem, providing it with big data analytics and agile coding frameworks. Develop and test smart city solutions in a real-world context (living lab).|
|Acceleration Programs (i.e., Pocifest)||Festivals/Events for accelerating the innovation process. The innovation eco-system accelerating startups and new ventures capitalizing on pilot demonstrations momentum|
|Governance innovation and co-creation.(i.e., TIPPING approach)||A method for Governance innovation and co-development. Increases the opportunities for own, local innovations and new business development//Promotes the involvement of start-ups from local applied science institutes//Promotes the stimulation of out-of-the-box solutions generated by the design and art sector//Promotes co-development of city projects with citizens and crowd-funding//Build own expertise and manpower within local governments, co-creating energy transition supportive projects, in cooperation with local stakeholders all over the quadruple helix//Own, local, and long-term expertise building.|
|Decision Support Tools||•Increase Citizen adoption, citizen participation, and co-creation practices; |
•Speed up the metabolism of city governments and governance structures, giving agencies the ability to watch events as they unfold, understand how demand patterns are changing, and respond with faster and often lower-cost solutions;
•More innovative solutions to be generated collectively and adopted towards more energy consumption cautious behaviors;
•Transition to a circular economy—reduce the negative impacts of the linear economy.
|Planning Urban Transformation (i.e., Eco-Acupuncture)||A decision-making supportive tool. Analyzes new locally specific starting points for urban transformation//Helps visualize future possibilities and designs a series of interventions towards a resilient urban environment//Mobilizes academic researchers, students, representatives of local government, business, and the wider community.|
|Design-based Value Mapping for Communities||A Design thinking method supporting decision-making and co-creation. Creates opportunities for new energy and circular product/services//Co-creates with all involved stakeholders a network of lead users//Lead-users help to strengthen the initial acceptance and support for the smart city projects, accelerating them, but also increasing the adoption rates in the follow-up phases of roll out.|
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|1.||Demonstrate solutions at building and district level that enable the increase of energy self-consumption, energy savings, and high share of locally produced renewable energy—leading to energy positive districts.||ETT#1: Innovative Solutions for Positive Energy Buildings and Districts.|
|2.||Demonstrate P2P energy management and storage solutions supporting grid flexibility and curtailment reduction.||ETT#2: P2P Energy Management and Storage Solutions for Grid Flexibility.|
|3.||Demonstrate the integration of electro-mobility solutions as an enabler to grid flexibility.||ETT#3: E-mobility Integration into Smart Grid and City Planning.|
|4.||Demonstrate active citizen engagement services and solutions providing an open innovation ecosystem for citizens to participate in co-creation, decision-making, planning, and problem solving within the Smart Cities.||ETT#4: Citizen-Driven Innovation in Co-creating Smart City Solutions.|
|Category||Evora Solutions||Alkmaar Solutions|
|ETT#1 (Obj.1)||RES generation (8)||PV (crystalline silicon) glass//PV canopies//PV skylights//Roof integrated PV systems//PV roofing shingles//Community Solar Farm.||Composite façades with vertical solar panels//Hybrid wind/solar generation system.|
|Smart energy management, control, and self-consumption (5)||Bidirectional Smart Inverters//Energy Routers//Building Management Systems (BMS)//Positive Computing Data Center.||Building/Home Energy Management Systems (BEMS/HEMS)|
|Building energy efficiency (5)||Triple Glazing//PCM in the floor//Insulation with Circular Materials//Thermo Acoustic Heat Pumps//Cascaded Heat Pumps|
|Sustainable waste utilization and management (3)||Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT).||Reverse Collection of Waste//Material Passports|
|ETT#2 (Obj.2)||Grid-Level Energy Management (5)||Micro-grid controller platform//Flexibility Control Algorithms.||City Energy Management System (CEMS)//Virtual Power Plant (VPP)//DC grid|
|Sustainable Energy Storage Systems (5)||LV and MV connected storage systems//Freezing storage in store//2nd Life Residential Batteries.||Stationary batteries (Li-ion)//Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES)//2nd Life Residential Batteries|
|Sustainable DHC Networks (6)||DHC//Low temperature heat grid//Geothermal heat source//Low temperature waste heat//Thermal grid controller//Heat Island concept|
|P2P energy trading (1)||Peer to Peer Energy transactions.||-|
|Hydrogen Technologies (1)||-||Fuel cells (hydrogen)|
|ETT#3 (Obj.3)||Vehicle to Grid (V2G) and EV Charging Infrastructure (4)||EV charging from PV systems//Smart Lamp posts with EV charging and 5G functionalities.||EV charging from PV systems//V2G//DC lighting with EV charging|
|Smart EV Charging (2)||EV charging management platform||Intelligent and optimal control algorithms|
|E-mobility Schemes (1)||EV Sharing||EV Sharing|
|ETT#4 (Obj.4)||Changing Energy Behavior (4)||Gamification//Tourist apps//Cultural experiences marketplace//Energy consumption monitoring, automation, and control through mobile apps.||-|
|City Services Infrastructures and Systems (3)||City Information Platform//Wi-fi data acquisition systems//Data lake intelligence for positive communities||City Information Platform//Wi-fi data acquisition systems//Data lake intelligence for positive communities|
|Fostering Energy related Innovations (3)||Smart cloud for innovative startups//Acceleration Programs (i.e., Pocifest).||Governance innovation and co-creation (i.e., TIPPING approach)|
|Decision Support Tools (2)||Design-based Value Mapping for Communities.||Planning Urban Transformation (i.e., Eco-Acupuncture)|
Innovative Solutions for Positive Energy Buildings and Districts.
P2P Energy Management and Storage Solutions for Grid Flexibility
E-mobility Integration into Smart Grid and City Planning.
Citizen-Driven Innovation in Co-Creating Smart City Solutions.
|Motivation||95||Reduces cost||94||Reduces cost||100||Informs||100|
|Avoids Hassles||62||Provides hope||78||Provides access||86||Reduces cost||92|
|Reduces cost||48||Motivation||72||Provides hope||71||Quality||92|
|Heirloom||48||Reduces risk||50||Reduces effort||71||Provides access||92|
|Provides hope||38||Simplifies||39||Avoids hassles||57||Avoids hassles||75|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Giourka, P.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Angelakoglou, K.; Kourtzanidis, K.; Nikolopoulos, N.; Sougkakis, V.; Fuligni, F.; Barberis, S.; Verbeek, K.; Costa, J.M.; et al. The Nexus between Market Needs and Value Attributes of Smart City Solutions towards Energy Transition. An Empirical Evidence of Two European Union (EU) Smart Cities, Evora and Alkmaar. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 604-641. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030032
Giourka P, Apostolopoulos V, Angelakoglou K, Kourtzanidis K, Nikolopoulos N, Sougkakis V, Fuligni F, Barberis S, Verbeek K, Costa JM, et al. The Nexus between Market Needs and Value Attributes of Smart City Solutions towards Energy Transition. An Empirical Evidence of Two European Union (EU) Smart Cities, Evora and Alkmaar. Smart Cities. 2020; 3(3):604-641. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030032Chicago/Turabian Style
Giourka, Paraskevi, Vasilis Apostolopoulos, Komninos Angelakoglou, Konstantinos Kourtzanidis, Nikos Nikolopoulos, Vasileios Sougkakis, Federica Fuligni, Stefano Barberis, Karin Verbeek, José Miguel Costa, and et al. 2020. "The Nexus between Market Needs and Value Attributes of Smart City Solutions towards Energy Transition. An Empirical Evidence of Two European Union (EU) Smart Cities, Evora and Alkmaar" Smart Cities 3, no. 3: 604-641. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030032